Two species of Calophya (Hemiptera: Calophyidae) were previously reported from Mexico: Calophya dicksoni Jensen associated with Fouquieria columnaris Kellogg ex Curran (Ericales: Fouquieriaceae) and Calophya schini Tuthill associated with Schinus molle L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae). Here, a 3rd species, Calophya spondiadis sp. nov. from hog plum, Spondias purpurea L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), is described and illustrated. The immatures do not induce galls on the host. They are polyphenic with respect to the presence or absence of long asperate processes on head, thorax, wing pads, and abdomen which is unusual and so far known only for Calophya californica Schwarz. The original description of C. dicksoni is supplemented and the current status of C. schini is discussed.
The jumping plant louse genus Calophya Löw (Hemiptera: Calophyidae) is species rich in the Neotropic, Nearctic, Oriental and East Palaearctic regions but rare in Australia and almost entirely absent from Africa. Most of the 68 described species are mono- or oligophagous on species of the Sapindales except for the 2 North American species Calophya dicksoni Jensen developing on Fouquieria columnaris (C. Kellogg) Kellogg ex Curran (Ericales: Fouquieriaceae) and Calophya oweni Tuthill, perhaps associated with Phoradendron juniperinum A. Gray (Santalales: Santalaceae) (Burckhardt & Basset 2000; Hollis 2004; Li 2011). Ericales and Santalales, both members of the asterids, are only very distantly related to Sapindales, which belong to the rosids.
Immature stages of Calophya often induce galls on the leaves, flowers, or twigs of their hosts with a diversity of shapes ranging from open pits to closed nipples, pouches, nuts, or spheres (Burckhardt & Basset 2000). The genus Calophya is unique among the Psylloidea in that hostinduced polyphenism has been observed. Immatures of the Californian Calophya californica Schwarz display different morphological features depending on the site where they develop, i.e., leaves or fruits of Rhus integrifolia (Nutt.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Rothr. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) (Nisson 2011).
One species, Calophya schini Tuthill is a pest on the Peruvian pepper tree (Schinus molle L.; Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), and 2 species, Calophya latiforceps Burckhardt and Calophya terebinthifolii Burckhardt & Basset are considered for biological control of the invasive Brazilian pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), in Florida.
Little is known about the genus Calophya in Mexico. Calophya dicksoni was described by Jensen (1957) from Baja California and has not been recorded since. The 2nd species, C. schini, previously misidentified as Calophya rubra (Blanchard), is associated with S. molle (Cibrián et al. 1995; Alvarez-Zagoya & Cibrián-Tovar 1999). In this study, a new species of Calophya associated with hog plum, Spondias purpurea L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is described from Mexico. Details on the biology of all 3 Mexican species of Calophya are provided.
Materials and Methods
The studied material was deposited in following institutions: EMEB-Essig Museum of Entomology, The University of California, Berkeley, USA; NHMB-Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland; CCP-Colección de insectos del Colegio de Postgraduados, México State, Mexico.
Images of the adults were obtained with a Carl Zeiss Tessovar microscope. Photos of morphological details of the 5th instar immatures and adults were taken with a Carl Zeiss Photomicroscope III and further treated with the software Gimp version 2.8.14.
The drawings and measurements where made from slide-mounted and dissected specimens cleared in KOH, washed in water, and stored in glycerin. Drawings were done using a drawing tube mounted on a Leica DMLB compound microscope. Measurements were taken from slide-mounted specimens with the image analyzer UTHSCSA Image tool 3.0. The morphological terminology follows Ossiannilsson (1992) and Burckhardt & Basset (2000). The following abbreviation are used; BL—body length; BW—body width; HW—head width; VL—vertex length; WL—forewing length; WW—forewing width; AL—antenna length; MTL—metatibia length; MP—male proctiger length; PL—paramere length; AB—length of proximal segment of aedeagus; AA—length of distal segment of aedeagus; FP—female proctiger length; SL—female subgenital plate length; FA—length of apical process of female proctiger; FL—forewing pad length; CL—circumanal ring length; CPL—caudal plate length; CW—caudal plate width.
Calophya dicksoni Jensen, 1957 (Figs. 1–10)
Mexico: Baja California: paratypes 4 males, 6 females, several adults dissected on 3 slides, 20 miles NE of Punta Prieta, 17-V-1949, Fouquieria columnaris, R. C. Dickson (dry and slide mounted, EMEB).
Originally described by Jensen (1957). Apart from the forewing, Jensen (1957) figured only the paramere in a caudal view. Here, we supplement the description of the male and female terminalia and provide additional figures of these structures. Male subgenital plate elongate. Paramere, in profile, sickle-shaped; with a subapical tooth on the inner margin in caudal view. Distal portion of aedeagus slightly curved. Distal inflated part large, about half as long as basal part; sclerotized end tube of ductus ejaculatorius large, weakly s-shaped. Dorsal margin of female proctiger, in profile, sinuous; apex pointed; in the middle, laterally, with a group of about 10 long, dense setae. Subgenital plate relatively short, cuneate, pointed apically.
Known only from Baja California, Punta Prieta (Jensen 1957).
Fouquieria columnaris (C. Kellogg) Kellogg ex Curran (Ericales: Fouquieriaceae). Immatures are free living on leaves of host.
Calophya schini Tuthill, 1959 (Figs. 11-29)
Mexico: Hidalgo: 2 males, Tepeji del Río de Ocampo, Highway 57D, 19.8739667°N, 99.3346833°W, 2,130 m asl, 17-VIII-2015, Schinus molle, D. Burckhardt & D.L. Queiroz, #15-21(4).-México State: Montecillo, Colegio de Postgraduados, 19.4637278°N, 98.9042722°W, 2,240 m asl, 16-II-2015, Schinus molle, Paul Mendez; 9 males, 15 females, same but 19.4623000°N, 98.9053333°W, 2,190 m asl, 10-12-VIII-2015, Schinus molle, D. Burckhardt & D.L. Queiroz, #15-14(5); 11 males, 10 females, Teotihuacán, San Franzisco Mazapa, 19.6846838°N, 98.8427900°W, 2,300 m asl, 9-VIII-2015, Schinus molle, D. Burckhardt & D.L. Queiroz, #15-13(1); 1 male, Highway 136 Texcoco to Calpulalpan, km 35, 19.5489000°N, 98.7721667°W, 2,520 m asl, 11-VIII-2015, D. Burckhardt & D.L. Queiroz, #15-15(-); 2 males, Highway 136 Texcoco to Calpulalpan, border to Tlaxcala, 19.5587000°N, 98.7077167°W, 2,870 m asl, 11-VIII-2015, D. Burckhardt & D.L. Queiroz, #15-16(-).— Michoacán: 5 males, 5 females, Cuitzeo highway Cuitzeo-Salamanca, 19.9928611°N, 102.6463111°W, 1,840 m asl, 15-XI -2014, Schinus molle, Paul Mendez; 2 females, Maravatío, 19.9062667°N, 100.5036833°W, 2,125 m asl, 17-VIII-2015, Schinus molle, D. Burckhardt & D.L. Queiroz, #15-22(4) (CCP, NHMB).
Originating probably from Chile and Peru; introduced into Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia; USA (California); Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa; Portugal; and New Zealand. Recorded from Mexico from following states: Baja California, Hidalgo, México City (Distrito Federal), México State, Michoacán