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9 August 2022 Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in the Hispaniolan Amazon Parrot (Amazona ventralis)
James W. Carpenter, Thomas N. Tully Jr, Kelly Rockwell, Butch KuKanich
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The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol (CBD), a potential treatment option that may alleviate pain in companion animals and humans, in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis). A pilot study administered a single oral dose of CBD in hemp oil at 10 mg/kg to 2 birds and 20 mg/kg to 2 birds. Because the maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) for these doses were 5.5 and 13 ng/mL, respectively, and the serum half-life was 2 hours for both groups, the doses were considered too low for clinical use in this species. Therefore, a study was designed in which 14 healthy 12–14-year-old parrots of both sexes and weighing 0.24–0.35 kg (mean, 0.28 kg) were enrolled. Seven birds were administered 60 mg/kg CBD PO, and 7 birds were administered 120 mg/kg CBD PO. Blood samples were obtained at time 0, and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10 hours posttreatment in a balanced incomplete block design. Quantification of plasma CBD concentrations was determined by use of a validated liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. The areas under the curve (h·ng/mL) were 518 and 1863, Cmax (ng/ mL) were 213 and 562, and times to achieve Cmax (hours) were 0.5 and 4 for the 60 and 120 mg/kg doses, respectively. The serum half-life could not be determined in the 60 mg/kg treatment, but was 1.28 hours at 120 mg/kg. Adverse effects were not observed in any bird. The highly variable results and short half-life of the drug in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, even at high doses, suggests that this drug formulation was inconsistent in achieving targeted concentrations as reported in other animal species.

© 2022 by the Association of Avian Veterinarians
James W. Carpenter, Thomas N. Tully Jr, Kelly Rockwell, and Butch KuKanich "Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in the Hispaniolan Amazon Parrot (Amazona ventralis)," Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 36(2), 121-127, (9 August 2022).
Published: 9 August 2022
Amazona ventralis
Hispaniolan Amazon parrot
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