Neoplasia due to environmental contaminants has been previously reported in wild amphibians; however, minimal research has been done to investigate individual cases of amphibian neoplasia independent of environmental contamination or viral etiologies. This study reviewed published literature for neoplasia in amphibians in order to supplement the Exotic Species Cancer Research Alliance (ESCRA) database. Through searches of three scientific literature databases (PubMed, CAB Abstracts, and Web of Science Zoological Record), 50 cases of amphibian neoplasia were found in 36 articles published between 1954 and 2018. The most common species reported were African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis; n = 8) and axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum; n = 6). Of the 50 cases, 27 of the neoplasms were malignant and 23 benign, with the majority of the malignant cases being localized (n = 17). Chromatophoroma (n = 9), lymphoma/leukemia (n = 6), and papilloma (n = 5) were the most frequently reported neoplasms, and skin (n = 24) and the hemolymphatic system (n = 6) were the most common locations. No treatment was provided for the majority (69%) of these cases. When treatment was provided, surgical excision was most frequently chosen and was associated with a better prognosis (n = 12, P < 0.001). Males and amphibians with benign neoplasms were more likely to have a better prognosis (P = 0.049 in a literature data set spanning 1954–2018 and P = 0.019 for 1970–2018), and animals with malignant neoplasms were more likely to have a poor prognosis (P = 0.036 for a literature data set spanning 1970–2018). This analysis of neoplasia in amphibians enables us to evaluate published cases of amphibian neoplasia to extend the analytical power of resources such as the ESCRA database and provide insight into prognostic factors of neoplasia in amphibian species.
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