We review the natural occurrence of tail duplications and tail bifurcations in amphibians as well as experimental studies that induced tail duplications. For natural populations, we found 10 publications that mention tail duplications or bifurcations in a total of 24 individual larval amphibians belonging to 15 species, mainly from Europe and South America. Nineteen publications describe the incidence for 34 individual postlarval urodeles from 12 species from North America, Europe, and Asia. Here we add three new observations: a subadult female Triturus dobrogicus with a duplicated tail and an adult female Triturus carnifex with a bifurcated tail from Hungary, and a tadpole of Hyla arborea with a bifurcated tail tip from Greece. The causes of tail duplications in wild amphibians remain unknown. Similar tail anomalies have been obtained in the laboratory when parts of the chorda dorsalis were destroyed, when tar is injected into the tail, or when the lumbar region is irradiated.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 46 • No. 4