The genus Aparasphenodon is poorly known. Of the four species, the larvae of only one have been described, and the advertisement calls of all taxa remain unknown. Here, we describe the tadpole, adult coloration, and advertisement calls of Aparasphenodon arapapa. We also provide data that extend its known distribution 170 km to the south, from the type locality in Ituberá to Una, Bahia, Brazil. In addition, we report larval morphology related to bromeligenous habitat specialization of tadpole and metamorph oophagy for the first time in the genus. The advertisement call is composed of one multipulsed note with mean duration of 150 ms. Whether the observed oophagy is obligatory or opportunistic remains unclear, suggesting that further studies are warranted. Our observations provide insight into the behavioral and morphological diversity in the genus Aparasphenodon, and may guide future studies of this unique group of anurans.
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Vol. 47 • No. 4