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1 February 2012 A Study of the Genus Limnophora Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae), with Descriptions of Six new species from China
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Abstract

This paper provides the characters of genus Limnophora (Diptera: Muscidae) and a key to the Chinese species of Limnophora, six new species collected from Hainan Island of China, namely, L. brevispatula, n. sp., L. cothurnosurstyla, n. sp., L. dyadocerca, n. sp., L. longitarsis, n. sp., L. nuditibia, n. sp. and L. ypocerca, n. sp. are diagnosed, described and illustrated, a new record species in China, namely, L. argentifrons (Shinonaga et Kano, 1977), is also included.

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Introduction

Limnophora Robineau-Desvoidy is a large genus of Muscidae (Diptera). RobineauDesvoidy established the genus in 1830, with L. palustria as the type species. This genus has a worldwide distribution, according to recent data, there are approximately 230 species in the world, including 66 species and a subspecies in China. In recent years, many scholars collected Muscidae specimens from Hainan Island of China, including six new species and a new record species belong to genus Limnophora. Hainan Island belongs to Oriental regions, and located on the northwest of the South China (18°10′–20°9′N, 108°36′–112°2′E), it with a tropical moist monsoonal climate, and has many mountain ranges, valleys, streams and rivers, the various environments and special climate are fit for Limnophora species to live.

Materials and Methods

Specimens were collected from Hainan Island of China. They were examined using an Olympus SZ-ST stereomicroscope ( www.olympus.com): further details (dissection, drawing, etc.) were studied under an Motic SMZ-140 dissecting stereomicroscopes. Male and female genitalia were examined and illustrated after they were dissected from the fly's bodies, all illustrations were drawn on ink jet plotter paper. The genitalia of dissected specimens were mounted in glycerol in a plastic tube on the staging pin.

The morphological terminology follows that of McAlpine (1981). Absolute measurements were used for the body length in millimeters. Descriptions of a species are done in the following order: body length, head, thorax, wing, legs and abdomen. The type specimens of the new species and examined specimens described herein are deposited in IESNU and IZCAS.

Abbreviations.ori, frontal setae; ors, orbital setae; acr, acrostichal setae; prst-acr, presutural acrostichal setae; prst-dc, presutural dorsocentral setae; dc, dorsocentral setae; ia, intra-alar setae, pra, prealar setae; av, anteroventral setae; ad, anterodorsal setae; pd, posterodorsal setae; pv, posteroventral setae; d, dorsal setae; p posterior setae; Co. Collected; IESNU Institute of Entomology, Shenyang Normal University, China; IZCA S (Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

Genus Limnophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830
(Diptera: Muscidae)

  • Limnophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 517. Type-species: Limnophora palustria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Limnophora maculosa (Meigen, 1826)).

  • Coquillet Robineau-Desvoidy 1830; Leucomelina Macquart 1851; Microchylum.

  • Macquart 1851; Melanochelia Rondani 1866; Pseudolimnophora Strobl 1893; Calliophrys Kowarz 1893; Limnophorites Schnabl et Dziedzicki 1911; Bucephalomyia Malloch 1918; Onychomyia Stein 1919; Emmesina Malloch 1921; Limnina Malloch, 1928; Apisia Séguy, 1950.

  • Identified Characteristic. -- Basisternum of prosternum with hairs, anepimeron and meron all bare; dorsal and ventral of radial node with small setae, R4+5 vein with hairs in a few specimens; hind tibia without pd, and usually without apical ad, if with small ad, the length less than the hind tibia's diameter; tergites 3 and 4 always with 1 pair of triangular blackish-brown spots; body length 1.5–5.0 mm.

  • Distribution. -- All over the world.

  • Key to the Chinese species of genus Limnophora Robineau-Desvoidy (♂♂)

    1 Sternite 1 bare 2

    - Sternite 1 with small hairs 66

    2 Dc 2+3 3

    - Dc 2+4 40

    3 Frons about 1/4 of head in width at least 4

    - Frons about 1/7 of head in width at most 22

    4 Frons with 1 pair of ors 5

    - Frons with 2 pairs of ors 8

    5 Parafacial subequal with the width of postpedicel, fronto-orbital plate and parafacial covered with argentate pruinosity L. pollinifrons Stein, 1916

    - Parafacial line-shaped, about 1/2 of postpedicel in width at most, fronto-orbital plate and parafacial covered with brown pruinosity 6

    6 Mid femur with 1 av, mid tibia with 2 p L. rufimana (Strobl, 1893)

    - Mid femur without av, mid tibia with 1p 7

    7 Frontal vitta about 8.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate; mid femur with 1 pd L. dyadocerca Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.

    - Frontal vitta about 3.5 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate; mid femur with 2 pd L. subcerca Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.

    8 1st and 2nd tarsomeres of mid legs white L. albitarsis Stein, 1915

    - All tarsomers of mid legs black 9

    9 Dorsal and ventral surface of R4+5 vein with small hairs L. veniseta Stein, 1915

    - Only basal part of R4+5 vein with hairs 10

    10 Hind tibia without av L. nuditibia Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.

    - Hind tibia with av 11

    11 Fronto-orbital plate and parafacial all covered with argentate white pruinosity L. argentifrons (Shinonaga et Kano, 1977) n. record in China

    - Fronto-orbital plate and parafacial covered with different colors pruinosity 12

    12 Frontal vitta and fronto-orbital plate covered with black pruinosity, lower half of parafacial wirelike L. beckeri Stein, 1908

    - Frontal vitta and fronto-orbital plate covered with different colors pruinosity, parafacial broad and not line-shaped 13

    13 Parafacial about 3/10 width of postpedicel at most 14

    - Parafacial about 1/2 width of postpedicel at least 15

    14 Frontal vitta about 3.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate, pretarsus about 1.6 times as long as fore tibia L. daduhea Feng, 2001

    - Frontal vitta about 6.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate, pretarsus subequal with fore tibia in length L. nigrisquama Tong, Xue et Wang, 2004

    15 Vibrissal angle situated behind frontal angle in profile, frontal angle become obtuse angle, parafacial about half of postpedicel 16

    - Vibrissal angle front of frontal angle in profile, frontal angle almost become right angle, parafacial subequal with postpedicel in width 21

    16 Scutum with distinct strip, basal half of scutellum covered with blackish-brown pruinosity L. pubiseta Emden, 1965

    - Scutum without distinct strip, basal half of scutellum without obvious blackish-brown pruinosity 17

    17 Frontal vitta greyish-white 18

    - Frontal vitta blackish-brown 19

    18 Calypters greyish-white; apical of surstyli intumescent in profile L. argentata Emden, 1965

    - Calypters yellowish; apical of surstyli not intumescent in profile L. yulongxueshanna Xue et Tong, 2003

    19 Lower calypter brown; scutum without vitta; mid tibia with 2 p, 1 basal pv and 1 medial pv L. papulicerca pubertiseta Xue et Zhang, 1995

    - Lower calypter white or yellowish; scutum with 3 dark brown vittae; mid tibia with 1 p, 1 basal pv 20

    20 Scutum without vitta; surstyli thin and long, apical half of surstyli curved as hook-like in profile L. triangula (Fallén, 1825)

    - Scutum with 3 brown black vittae; surstyli wide and short, apical half of surstyli not curved in profile L. papulicerca Xue et Zhang, 1998

    21 Frontal triangle covered with argentate pruinosity, extending to the anterior margin of frons, postpedicel about 3.0 times as long as wide; with 2 rows of setiform prst-acr L. argentitriangula Xue et Wang, 1985

    - Frontal triangle covered with gray pruinosity, not extending to the anterior arginal of frons, postpedicel about 2.0 times as long as wide; with 4 rows of trichoid prstacr L. cyclocerca Zhou et Xue, 1987

    22 Frons wider than the postpedicel in width 23

    - Frons equal to or narrower than the postpedicel in width 31

    23 Presutural area of scutum without blackish-brown spots 24

    - Presutural area of scutum with 3 blackish-brown spots 26

    24 Calypters grayish-white; hind femur with 3–4 pv L. albonigra Emden, 1965

    - Calypters brown; hind femur without pv 25

    25 Thorax with 4 rows of trichoid prst-acr, katepisternal setae 1+2; fore tarsus subequal with fore tibia in length L. brevispatula Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.

    - Thorax with 2–3 rows of trichoid prst-acr, katepisternal setae 1+1; fore tarsus about 1.8–1.9 times as long as fore tibia L. longitarsis Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.

    26 Fore tibia with pv indistinctly; the black spot of tergite 4 subequal with the the tergite in length 27

    - Fore tibia with pv distinctly; the black spot of tergite 4 about half of the tergite in length 28

    27 Ia 0+2; mid tibia with 2 p, basal of scutellum without black transverse stripe L. emeishanica Feng, 2005

    - Ia 0+1; mid tibia with 1 p, basal of scutellum with 1 black transverse stripe L. fallax Stem, 1920

    28 Frontal vitta about half of fronto-orbital plate in width; thorax with 2 rows of prst-acr; mid tibia with 1 p L. mongolica Xue et Zhang, 1997

    - Frontal vitta about 1.0–2.5 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate; thorax with 3–4 rows of prst-acr; mid tibia with 2–3 p 29

    29 Thorax with 3 rows of prst-acr; tergite 5 brownish-yellow entirely, distal part with 1 pair of long setae L. cinerifulva Feng, 1999

    - Thorax with 4 rows of prst-acr; tergite 5 with 1 pair of brown spots, and without long seta 30

    30 Distal of sternite 5 closed to quadrate in profile, inner branch of surstyli long, and with setae L. septentrionalis Xue, 1984

    - Distal of sternite 5 pointed in profile, inner branch of surstyli short, and without any hairs L. minutifallax Lin et Xue, 1986

    31 Apical of the surstyli long spoon-shaped L. longispatula Xue et Tong, 2003

    - Apical of the surstyli not long spoon-shaped 32

    32 Tergite 5 with spot 33

    - Tergite 5 without spot L. oreosoacra Feng, 2005

    33 Tergite 5 with 1 spot or 2 indistinct spots, if with 2 spots, scutellum black or almost, apical of scutellum without lightly pruinosity 34

    - Tergite 5 with 2 light brown spots obviously, apical half of scutellum covered with grey pruinosity 38

    34 Dorsal and ventral surface of R4+5 vein with small seta rows 35

    - Only basal part of R4+5 vein with hairs 36

    35 Frons with 3 pairs of proclinate ors; thorax with 1 prealar seta; posterior margin of syntergite 1+2 with 1 pair of indistinct black spots -L. yunnanensis Xue et Tong, 2003

    - Frons with 4 pairs of proclinate ors; thorax without prealar seta; syntergite 1+2 without black spot L. spoliata Stein, 1915

    36 Frons with 3 pairs of ors, 2 pairs of ori; fore tibia with 1 medial p, mid and hind tibiae brown L. brunneitibia

    - Frons with 1–2 pairs of ors, 4 pairs of ori at least; fore tibia without medial p, mid and hind tibiae black 37

    37 Tergite 5 with 1 indistinct triangular spot, lateral lobe of sternite 5 tapering in profile, distal of cerci intumescent L. nigra Xue, 1984

    - Tergite 5 with 1 distinct pair triangular brown spots, lateral lobe of sternite 5 round distally in profile, distal of cerci intumescent L. prominens Stein, 1904

    38 Lateral lobe of sternite 5 round distally in profile, tergite 5 with 1 median vitta between 2 spots L. nigrilineata Xue, 1984

    - Lateral lobe of sternite 5 tapering in profile, tergite 5 without median vitta between 2 spots 39

    39 The median strip scutum not reaching to scutoscutellar suture; sternite 5 flat, its lateral lobe tapering L. parastylata Xue, 1984

    - The median strip scutum reaching to scutoscutellar suture; sternite 5 not flat, its lateral lobe wide L. purgata Xue, 1992 40 Anterior half of postscutum with brownish-black transverse stripe-----41

    - Anterior half of postscutum without brownish-black transverse stripe 47

    41 Frons about 3.5 times of as wide as postpedicel at least; sternite 2 with strong setae, sternite 5 with dense and short setae cluster L. exigua (Wiedemann, 1830)

    - Frons 2.5 times as wide as postpedicel at most, sternites 2 and 5 without above setae 42

    42 Frontal vitta about 4.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate 43

    - Frontal vitta abot 2.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate at most 45

    43 Katepisternal setae 1+1; hind fumur without av L. surrecticerca Xue et Zhang, 1997

    - Katepisternal setae 1+2; hind fumur with 2 av at least 44

    44 Frons with 8–9 pairs of ori; mid fumur without pv, hind tibia with 2–4 av L. furcicerca Xue et Liu, 1990

    - Frons with 4 pairs of ori; mid fumur with 2 pv, hind tibia without av L. cothurnosurstyla Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.

    45 Between the brownish-black transverse stripe of postscutum and scutellum with with a narrow greyish-brown vitta L. tigrina (Am Stein, 1860)

    - Between the brownish-black transverse stripe of postscutum and scutellum without greyish-brown vitta 46

    46 Frons narrower than eye in width distinctly, fronto-orbital plate covered with greyish-white to brown pruinosity L. himalayensis Brunetti, 1907

    - Frons subequal with eye in width, Fronto-orbital plate covered with silvery white pruinosity L. suturalis Stein, 1915

    47 Frons about 1/4 of head in width at least, about 3.5 times as wide as postpedicel 48

    - Frons about 1/6 of head in width at most, about 2.5 times as wide as postpedicel 51

    48 Katepisternal setae 1+2 49

    - Katepisternal setae 1+1 50

    49 Fronto-orbital plate covered with dense and brown pruinosity, arista short plumose L. apiciseta Xue et Zhang, 1998

    - Fronto-orbital plate covered with grey pruinosity, arista pubescent L. nigripes

    50 Fronto-orbital plate covered with brown pruinosity; tergites 2 and 3 without triangular lateral spots L. breviventris Stein, 1915

    - Fronto-orbital plate covered with grey pruinosity; tergites 2 and 3 with triangular lateral spots L. flavifrons Stein, 1915

    51 Hind fumur with pv rows; distal of cerci with forcipate-like process 52

    - Hind femur without pv row; distal of cerci without forcipate-like process 53

    52 Epistoma projecting; R4+5 vein with small seta; mid and hind femora with 1 entire pv row separately L. setinerva Schnabl, 1911

    - Epistoma not projecting; R4+5 vein without small seta; only basal half of mid femur with pv, and basal 3/5 of hind femur with pv L. biprominens Zhang et Xue, 1996

    53 Frons only about 1/15 of head in width, and subequal with anterior ocellus in width; hind femur with entire av row L. virago Emden, 1965

    - Frons about 1/10 of head in width at least, and about 1.5 times as wide as anterior ocellus; only apical half of hind femur with av row 54

    54 Eye holoptic; mid femur only with 1 long and strong medial a L. conica Stein, 1915

    - Eye dichoptic; basal half of mid femur with 1 a row at least 55

    55 Calypter light brown to brown, fronto-orbital plate covered with brown or brown grey pruinosity 56

    - Calypter white, if yellowish, fronto-orbital plate covered with white or silvery grey pruinosity normally 57

    56 Parafacial about 1.3 times as wide as postpedicel; thorax with 4 rows of prst-acr; mid femur with 2 pd, 3–4 pv, hind tibia with 2 av L. leptosternita Tong, Xue et Wang, 2004

    - Parafacial subequal with postpedicel; thorax with 2 rows of prst-acr; mid femur without pd and pv, hind tibia without av L. brunneisquamam Mu et Zhang 1990

    57 Frontal vitta about 2.5 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate; mid tibia with 3 p L. reventa Feng, 1999

    - Frontal vitta equal to or narrower than fronto-orbital plate in width; mid tibia with 2 p 58

    58 Frontal vitta not line-shaped, frons about 1.5–2.0 times as wide as the distance of outer margin of posterior ocellar 59

    - Frontal vitta line-shaped, frons equal to or narrower than the distance of outer margin of posterior ocellar in width 65

    59 Fronto-orbital plate about 2.3 times as wide as frontal vitta; mid femur with 1 apical pd L. apicicerca Xiang et Xue, 1998

    - Fronto-orbital plate about 1.5 times as wide as frontal vitta at most; mid femur with 2 apical pd 60

    60 Thorax with 4 rows of prst-acr, without pra 61

    - Thorax with 2 rows of prst-ac, pra hair-like 62

    61 Fronto-orbital plate covered with silvery white pruinosity; katepisternal setae 1+1 L. tibetan Xue et Zhang, 1998

    - Fronto-orbital plate covered with brownish-grey pruinosity; katepisternal setae 1+2 L. nigriscrupulosa Xiang et Xue, 1998

    62 Frontal angle situated behind vibrissal angle in profile; mid tibia with 1 p L. asiatica Xue et Zhang, 1998

    - Vibrissal angle situated behind frontal angle in profile; mid tibia with 2 p 63

    63 Pra 2, scutum covered with dark gray pruinosity L. scrupulosa (Zetterstedt, 1845)

    - Pra 1, scutum covered with light gray pruinosity 64

    64 Katepisternal setae 1+2, posterior half of tergite 5 with 1 brown triangular median vitta; basal half of surstyli wide, which becoming narrow toward to apical in profile L. subscrupulosa Zhang et Xue, 1990

    - Katepisternal setae 1+1, tergite 5 with 1 brown median stripe; apical of surstyli wide and narrow in middle part in profile L. orbitalis Stein, 1907

    65 Frons with 2 pairs of proclinate ors; tergite 5 with brown median vittae L. interfrons Xue, 1982

    - Frons with 1 pair of proclinate ors; tergite 5 without median vitta. L. latiorbitalis

    66 Thorax with 4 rows of prst-acr, katepisternal setae 1+1 L. bannaensis Zhang, Xue et Wang, 1998

    - Thorax with 2 rows of prst-acr, katepisternal setae 1+2 L. latifrons Zhang et Xue, 1996

    Limnophora argentifrons (Shinonaga et Kano, 1977), n. record in China
    (Figure 1A–C)

  • Material examined. -- China, Hainan Island, Mt. Jianfeng, 700–800 m, 29 April 2008, Shu-Chong Bai Co., 2 ♂♂ (IESNU), 1 ♂ (IZCAS); 30 April 2008, Shu-Chong Bai and Xu-Dong Fei Co., 2 ♂♂ (IESNU), 2 ♂♂ (IZCAS).

  • Distribution. -- Japan, Ryukyu Islands (Iriomote Island, Okinawa main Island and Amamioshima Island); China, Hainan Island (Mt. Jianfeng).

  • Limnophora brevispatula Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.
    (Figure 2A–C)

  • Holotype male. -- Body length 4.8–5.0 mm.

  • Head. Eye bare; frons about 1.2 times as wide as postpedicel, about 1/10 of head in width, lower 3/5 of frons with 5–6 pairs of intilted ori, upper 2/5 with 3 pairs of thin ors, frontal vitta black, about 1.5–2.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate, ocellar seta longer than the longest ori, fronto-orbital plate and parafacial covered with gray white pruinosity, parafacial about 2/5 of postpedicel in width; antennae black, postpedicel about 3.0 times as long as wide, arista short ciliated, the longest hair shorter than aristal basal diameter, lunule brown, frontal angle situated behind vibrissal angle in profile; gena about 1/8 of eye in height, genal and postgena hairs all black, the upper lateral area of the occiput with black hairs, prementum shining, about 3.0 times as long as wide; labella small, the length subequal with prementum height, palpus black, slightly longer than prementum.

  • Thorax. Black in ground color, proepisternum covered with gray pruinosity distinctly, scutum black mostly, lateral of anterior of transverse suture to notopleuron covered with gray pruinosity, anterior part of transverse suture covered with gray pruinosity, anterior 3/4 of postscutum with black transverse stripe, posterior margin of transverse stripe extending to back, but not reaching to scutoscutellar suture; 4 rows of trichoid prst-acr, only 1 pair distinct before scutellum, dc 2+3, ia 0+1, pra hair-like; scutellum all black, lateral and ventral surface bare; basisternum of prosternum with hairs, notopleural, proepisternum hollow in centre, anepimeron, meron and katepimeron all bare; proepisternal setae 2, upper anterior anepisternal seta 1, katepisternal setae 1+2, the lower one only about 1/3 of the upper one.

  • Wing. Transparent slightly, veins brown, basicosta black, costal spine small and short, distal of Sc slightly straight, dorsal and ventral surface of R4+5 vein in basal part and rascial node all with setae, calypters light brown, its margin brown, lower calypter protrude to tongue-shaped; halter yellow.

  • Legs. Entirely black; fore tibia without median p; mid femur without av, basal 2/5 with setiform a, the super-medial one strong, 2 apical pd, with 2 pv, mid tibia with 1 median p; hind femur with 2 av in apical 1/3, without pv, hind tibia with 1 median av, 1 supermedial ad, without pv; mid and hind tarsi longer than tibia, claw and pulvilli short and small, about half of 5th tarsomere in length.

  • Abdomen. Black in ground color, oviformshaped, covered with brownish-gray pruinosity, tergites 3 and 4 with a pair of triangulare lateral spots respectively, the widest part of spot wider than the length of tergite, tergite 5 with a trapeziform median spot indistinctly, syntergite 1+2 black except lateral of posterior part with brownish-grey pruinosity, sternite 1 bare. Tternite 5, cerci and surstyli as in Figure 2A–C.

  • Female. -- Unknown.

  • Type material. -- Holotype. China, Hainan Island, Mt. Jianfeng, 700–800 m, 30 April 2008, Shu-Chong Bai Co., ♂ (IESNU). Paratype. China, Hainan Island, Mt. Jianfeng, 700–800 m, 29 April 2008, ShuChong Bai Co., 1 ♂ (IESNU). China, Hainan Island, Mt. Wuzhi, 800 m, 4 May 2008, Xu-Dong Fei Co., 1 ♂ (IZCAS).

  • Remarks. -- This new species is similar to L. longitarsis n. sp., but it differs from the latter in male frontal angle situated behind vibrissal angle in profile; fore tibia without median p, mid femur with 2 p; the surstyli like a short spoon in profile.

  • Etymology. -- The species name is derived from the Latin “brev” meaning short, “spatula” meaning spoon, refering to surstyli short spoon-shaped in profile.

  • Distribution. -- China, Hainan Island (Mt. Jianfeng and Mt. Wuzhi).

  • Limnophora cothurnosurstyla Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.
    (Figure 3 A–E)

  • Holotype Male. -- Body length 3.6–3.8 mm.

  • Head. Eye bare; frons about 1/5 of head in width, lateral margins paralleled, with 4 pairs of ori, 2 pairs of thin ors, frontal vitta black, about 4.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate, frontal triangle narrow, adjacent to frontal angle, ocellar seta shorter than the the lower ori, inner vertical seta long and strong, outer vertical seta about 2/3–4/5 of inner vertical seta in length, upper 2/3 of fronto-orbital plate covered with brown pruinosity, lower 1/3 covered with brown grey pruinosity, parafacial narrow, covered with light grey pruinosity, middle part of parafacial about 1/3 of postpedicel in width; antennae black and long, distal of postpedicel reaching to epistoma almost, basal situated upper 3/5 of eye, postpedicel about 3.0 times as long as wide, arista short ciliated, the longest hair subequal with aristal basal diameter; vibrissal angle at the same vertical line with frontal angle in profile; gena about 1/10 of eye in height, covered with grey pruinosity, genal and postgenal hairs all black, the upper lateral area of the occiput with hairs, prementum shining, about 3.0 times as long as wide; labella small, the length subequal with prementum height, palpus black, slightly longer than prementum.

  • Thorax. Black in ground color, scutum almost black, lateral of anterior of transverse suture covered with gray pruinosity stripe, scutum and dorsal part of scutellum black mostly, only prescutum with 1 narrow pruinosity stripe, posterior of postpronotal lobe and notopleuron covered with dark grey pruinosity; 4 rows of trichoid prst-acr, only 1 pair distinct before scutellum, dc 2+4, ia 0+2, pra seta absent, lateral of scutellum bare, basisternum of prosternum with hairs, notopleural, proepisternum hollow in centre, anepimeron, meron and katepimeron all bare; proepisternal setae 2, upper anterior anepisternal seta 1, katepisternal setae 1+2, the lower one only about 1/3 of the upper one, anterior and posterior spiracles small and brown.

  • Wing. Transparent slightly, veins brown, basicosta black, costal spine small or absent, distal of Sc slightly straight, dorsal and ventral surface of rascial node with setae, calypters yellowish, lower calypter protrude to tongueshaped; halter yellow.

  • Legs. Entirely black; fore tibia without median p; mid femur without av, basal 1/2 with setiform a row, 2 super-medial a long and strong, 2 pre-apical pd, 2 bassal pv, mid tibia with 2 median p; hind femur with 2–3 av in apical 1/3, without pv, hind tibia without av, with 1 medial ad, without pv; all tarsi longer than tibia, pulvilli small, about half of claw in length, claw about 3/5 of 5th tarsomere in length.

  • Abdomen. Black in ground color, oviformshaped almost, covered with dark gray to brownish-gray pruinosity, tergites 3 and 4 with a pair of big black lateral spots respectively, the widest part of spot wider than the length of tergite, tergite 5 with 1 wide median patch, syntergite 1+2 all black except middle part, tergite 5 only discal scutellar setae and posterior marginal scutellar setae distinctly, tergite 6 and sternite 1 bare, posterior margin of sternites 2 to 4 with a pair of long setae respectively. Sternites 2–5, cerci and surstyli as in Figure 3 A–E.

  • Female. — Unknown.

  • Type material. -- Holotype. China, Hainan Island, Mt. Wuzhi, 800 m, 3 May 2008, ShuChong Bai Co., ♂ (IESNU). Paratype. China, Hainan Island, Mt. Wuzhi, 800 m, 3 May 2008, Shu-Chong Bai Co., 1 ♂ (IESNU). China, Hainan Island, Mt. Jianfeng, 700–800 m, 30 April 2008, Xu-Dong Fei Co., 2 ♂♂ (IZCAS).

  • Remarks. -- This new species is similar to L. malailei Emden, 1965, but it differs from the latter in male frons about 1/5 of head in width, frontal vitta black; lateral of anterior of transverse suture covered with gray pruinosity stripe; calypters yellowish; hind femur with 2 bassal pv, hind femur with 2–3 av in apical 1/3, hind tibia without av; abdomen oviformshaped.

  • Etymology. -- The species name is derived from the Greek words “cothurn” meaning boot, “surstylus” meaning surstyli, refering to the surstyli boot-shaped in posterior view.

  • Distribution. -- China, Hainan Island (Mt. Jianfeng and Mt. Wuzhi).

  • Limnophora dyadocerca Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.
    (Figure 4A–C)

  • Holotype Male. -- Body length 2.0–2.2 mm.

  • Head. Eye bare; frons black, upper part about 0.52 times as wide as head, lower part about 0.43 times as wide as head, with 2 pairs of ori, almost in the same length, with 1 forewards hair in its upper, with 1 pairs of ors, a short and proclinate hair always in the lower part, upper part of frontal vitta about 8.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate, frontal triangle unobvious, reaching to upper 1/3 of ors at most; outer vertical seta about half of inner vertical seta, inner vertical seta slightly longer than ocellar seta, ocellar seta slightly longer than the ori, fronto-orbital plate covered with dark brown pruinosity, parafacial covered with light grey pruinosity, the width of parafacial about half of postpedicel in width; antennae black brown, postpedicel long and broad, about 3.0 times as long as broad, and its width subequal with length of pedicel, basal 1/6–1/5 becoming wide, most aristal hairs subequal with its basal diameter; vibrissal angle situated behind frontal angle in profile; gena covered with dense and dark grey pruinosity, genal hairs black and sparse, genal height about 1/5 of width of postpedicel at most, and about 1/12 of eye height, the upper lateral area of the occiput with hairs, prementum shining, about 2.2–2.5 times as long as wide; labella small, the length subequal with height of prementum, palpus black, slightly longer than prementum.

  • Thorax. Black in ground color, most part of scutum black, proepisternum covered with dark gray pruinosity, anterior 1/3 of prescutum covered with dark gray pruinosity, and with a black median vitta obviously, posterior 2/5 of postscutum covered with gray pruinosity, and with 3 narrow brown vittae, all vittae reaching to scutoscutellar suture; postpronotal lobe and its posterior part covered with grayish- white pruinosity, scutellum all black; 2 rows of trichoid prstacr, dc 2+3, without obvious ia and pra, basisternum of prosternum with hairs, notopleural, lateral of scutellum, proepisternum hollow in centre, anepimeron, meron and katepimeron all bare; proepisternal setae 2, upper anterior anepisternal seta 1, katepisternal setae 1+2, lower one about 2/5 of anterior one in length, anterior and posterior spiracles small and brown.

  • Wing. Slightly transparent, veins brown, basicosta black, costal spine absent, dorsal and ventral surface of rascial node with setae, calypters grayish-white, posterior margin of lower calypter dark brown, knob of halter big and black, stalk black brown.

  • Legs. Entirely black, femur thin and long; fore tibia without median p; mid femur without av, basal half without distinct a row, with 1 preapical pd, apical 3/5 with distinct pv, mid tibia with 1 median p; hind femur with 1 apical av, without pv, hind tibia with 1 av, with 1 medial ad, without pv; all tarsi longer than tibia, pulvilli small, about half of claw in length, claw about 3/5 of 5th tarsomere in length.

  • Abdomen. Black in ground color, cone-shaped, syntergite 1+2 black mostly, tergites 3 and 4 with a pair of dark brown triangular spots respectively, tergite 5 with indistinct small lateral spots, middle and lateral of tergites 3 to 5 covered with light gray pruinosity, sternite 1 bare, posterior margin of sternite 5 narrow, cerci split to four forks (Figure 4B), inner two forks pointed, outer two long and broad, distal of surstyli hook-shaped and bend forwards. Sternite 5, cerci and surstyli as in Figure 4A–C.

  • Female. — Unknown.

  • Type material. -- Holotype. China, Hainan Island, Mt. Wuzhi, 800 m, 2 May 2008, Xu-Dong Fei Co., ♂ (IESNU). Paratype. China, Hainan Island, Mt. Wuzhi, 800 m, 2 May 2008, Shu-Chong Bai and Xu-Dong Fei Co., 2 ♂♂ (IZCAS). China, Hainan Island, Mt. Jianfeng, 700–800 m, 30 April 2008, Xu-Dong Fei Co., 1 ♂ (IESNU).

  • Remarks. -- This new species is similar to L. ypocerca n. sp., but it differs from the latter in male upper part of frontal vitta about 8.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate, frons with 2 pairs of ori; thorax without obvious ia; calypters grayish-white, posterior margin of lower calypter dark brown, knob of halter big and black, stalk black brown; mid femur with 1 pre-apical pd; abdomen cone-shaped, cerci split to two parts (four forks), inner two forks pointed, outer two long and broad, distal of surstyli hook-shaped and bend forwards.

  • Etymology.--The species name is derived from the Greek words “dyad” meaning two, “cerca” meaning cerci, refering to cerci split to two parts.

  • Distribution. -- China, Hainan Island (Mt. Jianfeng and Mt. Wuzhi).

  • Limnophora longitarsis Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.
    (Figure 5A–G)

  • Holotype Male. -- Body length 3.5–3.8 mm.

  • Head. Eye bare; frons about 1.2–1.3 times as wide as postpedicel, about 1/10–1/9 of head in width, frontal vitta black, about 2.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate, lower 3/5 of frons with 5–6 pairs of intilted ori, lower 2/5 with 3 pairs of thin ors, the ocellar seta longer than the longest ori, upper part of fronto-orbital plate covered with brownish-gray pruinosity, the lower part and parafacial covered with grayish-white pruinosity, parafacial about 2/5 of postpedicel in width; antennae black, postpedicel about 3.0 times as long as wide, arista short ciliated, the longest hair subequal with aristal basal diameter; lunule brown, vibrissal angle situated behind frontal angle in profile, gena about 1/8 of eye in height, genal and postgena hairs all black, the upper lateral area of the occiput with black hairs; prementum shining, about 3.0 times as long as wide; labella small, the length subequal with prementum height, palpus black, slightly longer than prementum.

  • Thorax. Black in ground color, proepisternum covered with gray pruinosity distinctly, scutum black mostly, lateral of anterior of transverse suture to notopleuron covered with gray pruinosity, anterior part of scutoscutellar suture covered with brown-gray pruinosity, anterior 3/4 of postscutum with black transverse stripe, posterior margin of transverse stripe extending to back, but not reaching to scutoscutellar suture; 4 rows of trichoid prst-acr, only 1 pair distinct before scutellum, dc 2+3, ia 0+1, pra hairlike, notopleural, proepisternum hollow in centre, anepimeron, meron and katepimeron all bare, basisternum of prosternum with hairs, scutellum all black, lateral and ventral surface bare, upper anterior anepisternal seta 0–1, proepisternal setae 2, upper anterior anepisternal seta 1, katepisternal setae 1+1.

  • Wing. Transparent slightly, veins brown, basicosta black, costal spine small and short, distal of Sc slightly straight, dorsal and ventral surface of R4+5 vein in basal part and radial node all with setae, calypters yellowish, lower calypter projecting and tongue-shaped, halter yellow.

  • Legs. Entirely black. Fore tibia with 1 median p, tartus of front legs about 1.8–1.9 times as long as fore tibia; mid femur without av, basal 2/5 with setiform a row (one of them large on super-medial), 2 pre-apical pd, without obvious pv, ventral surface with a long seta basally, mid tibia with 1 median p; distal 1/3 of hind femur with 3–4 av, without pv, hind tibia with 1 median av, 1 super-medial ad, without pv. Mid and hind tarsi longer than tibia, fore pulvilli subequal with claws in length, mid and hind pulvilli shorter than claws, claws about 1/2 of 5th tarsomere in length.

  • Abdomen. Black in ground color, similar to oviform-shaped, covered with brownish-grey pruinosity, tergites 3 and 4 with a pair of triangular lateral spots respectively, the distance between the lateral spots about 1/3 of the length of tergite, the widest part of spot wider than the length of tergite, tergite 5 with a trapeziform median spot indistinctly, syntergite 1+2 black except lateral of posterior part with brownish-grey pruinosity, sternite 1 bare. Sternites 2–5, cerci and surstyli as in Figure 5A–C.

  • Female. -- Frons about 1/3 of head in width, with 4 pairs of intilted ori, outer with small setae, with 2 pairs of ors, frontal triangle reaching to front of frons, frontal vitta about 4.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate, fronto-orbital plate and parafacial covered with gray white pruinosity, parafacial about 2/5 of postpedicel in width, vibrissal angle at the same vertical line with frontal angle in profile; ia 0+1(2); tartus of front legs about 1.6–1.7 times as long as fore tibia; tergites 3 and 4 with a pair of triangular lateral spots, the distance between the lateral spots about 1/5 of the length of tergite, syntergite 1+2 almost black, a pair of tergites 6 and 7 respectively, all long and strong, posterior margin of tergite 6 wide, with a gap in middle of tergite 6, but not cloven, sternites 7 and 8 divide into 2 parts, sternite 7 with a seta, tergites 6 to 8 extend to ventral surface, tergite 8 with 2 setae, hypoproct with many dense and long setae, cerci broad and large, 3 spermathecas, surface 1/3 transparent and membranous, but not sunken. Spermatheca and ovipositor as in Figure 5D, F–G. The other characters are the same as male.

  • Type material. -- Holotype. China, Hainan Island, Mt. Jianfeng, 700–800 m, 29 April 2008, Shu-Chong Bai Co., ♂ (IESNU). Paratype. China, Hainan Island, Mt. Jianfeng, 700–800 m, 13 September 2007, Jing Du Co., 1 ♂ (IESNU); 29 April 2008, ShuChong Bai Co., 2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀ (IESNU), 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀ (IZCAS); 30 April 2008, Shu-Chong Bai and Xu-Dong Fei Co., 6 ♂♂, 6 ♀♀ (IESNU), 6 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀ (IZCAS).

  • Remarks. -- This new species is similar to L. albonigra Emden, 1965, but it differs from the latter in male parafacial about 2/5 of postpedicel in width; thorax with 4 rows of prst-acr, calypters yellowish, tartus of front legs about 1.8–1.9 times as long as fore tibia, mid femur without distinct pv, hind tibia with 1 median av, hind femur with 3–4 av, without pv; syntergite 1+2 black except lateral of posterior part with brownish-grey pruinosity.

  • Etymology. -- The species name is derived from the Latin words “long” meaning long and “tarsis” meaning tartus, referring to tartus of front legs long, about 1.8–1.9 times as long as fore tibia.

  • Distribution. -- China, Hainan Island (Mt. Jianfeng).

  • Limnophora nuditibia Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.
    (Figure 6A–H)

  • Holotype Male. -- Body length 2.5–2.7 mm.

  • Head. Eye bare; frons about 2/5 of head in width, with 2 pairs of intilted ori, upper 2/5 with 2 pairs of upper ors, frontal vitta black, about 5.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate, frontal triangle shining, reaching to frontage of frons, ocellar seta longer than the longest ori, fronto-orbital plate and parafacial covered with dark gray pruinosity, lower part of parafacial became narrow obviously, parafacial about 1/3 of postpedicel in width, which only wirelike in profile; antennae black, wide and large, distal of postpedicel reaching to epistoma almost, postpedicel about 3.0 times as long as wide, arista short pubescent, the longest hair subequal with aristal basal diameter; lunule dark black, vibrissal angle at the same vertical line with frontal angle or slightly situated behind in profile; gena about 1/8 of eye in height, genal and postgena hairs all black, the upper lateral area of the occiput with black hairs, prementum shining, about 2.5 times as long as wide; labella small, the length subequal with prementum height, palpus black, slightly longer than prementum.

  • Thorax. Black in ground color, proepisternum covered with caesious pruinosity distinctly, scutum black mostly, lateral of anterior of transverse suture covered with narrow and gray pruinosity stripe, posterior of postpronotal lobe and notopleuron covered with light grey pruinosity, anterior 4/5 of postscutum with black transverse stripe, posterior margin of transverse stripe extending to back, but not reaching to scutoscutellar suture; 2–3 rows of trichoid prst-acr, only 1 pair distinct before scutellum, dc 2+3, ia 0+2, pra absent, basisternum of prosternum with hairs, notopleural, proepisternum hollow in centre, anepimeron, meron and katepimeron all bare, scutellum all black, lateral and ventral surface bare; upper anterior anepisternal seta 1, proepisternal setae 2, upper anterior anepisternal setae 2, katepisternal setae 1+2, the lower one only about 1/3–2/5 of the upper one.

  • Wing. Transparent, veins brown, basicosta black, costal spine small and short, distal of Sc slightly straight, dorsal and ventral surface of rascial node with setae, upper calypter yellowish, lower calypter white and protrude to tongue-shaped; halter yellow.

  • Legs. Entirely black; fore tibia without median p; mid femur without av, basal part with setiform a row, the super-medial one strong, with 1–2 pre-basal pv, 2 pre-apical pd, mid tibia with 1 super-medial p; hind femur with 2 av in apical 1/4, with 1 super-medial pv and 1 sub-basal pv, hind tibia without av, with 1 super-medial ad, without pv; each tarsi longer than tibia, pulvilli and claw small, shorter than half of 5th tarsomere.

  • Abdomen. Abdomen as in Figure 6A. Black in ground color, short oviform-shaped, covered with brownish-gray pruinosity, tergites 3 and 4 with a pair of short and flat triangular lateral spots respectively, dark black, the width of spot about 2.0 times as long as the tergite, tergite 5 with triangular median spot, dark brown, syntergite 1+2 all black, sternite 1 bare. Sternites 1–5, cerci and surstyli as in Figure 6B–D, F.

  • Female. -- Body length 2.8–3.2 mm. Mid femur with 0–1 pre-basal pv, hind femur with 1 apical av; abdomen oviform-shaped, tergite 5 with a median stripe, a pair of tergites 6, tergite 7 thin and long, crossed apically, posterior margin of sternite 6 wide, cloven in middle part, sternites 6 and 8 divide into 2 parts, sternite 7 disappeared, tergite s6 to 8 extend to ventral surface, tergite 8 with 2 setae, hypoproct with dense and long hairs, cerci broad and large, 3 spermathecas, surface 1/3 transparent and membranous, but not sunken. Spermatheca and ovipositor as in Figure 6E, G–H. The other characters are the same as male.

  • Type material. -- Holotype. China, Hainan Island, Mt. Wuzhi, 700–800 m, 4 may 2008, Shu-Chong Bai Co., ♂ (IESNU). Paratype. China, Hainan Island, Mt. Bawang, 700 m, 14 September 2007, Shu-Chong Bai Co., 1 ♀ (IESNU). China, Hainan Island, Mt. Jianfeng, 700–800 m, 11 September 2007, Dandan Zhao and Jing Du Co., 3 ♂♂, 1 ♀ (IESNU); 13 September 2007, Dan-Dan Zhao, Jing Du and Shu-Chong Bai Co., 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀ (IESNU), 2 ♀♀ (IZCAS); 29 April 2008, Shu-Chong Bai Co., 3 ♂ (IESNU); 30April 2008, ShuChong Bai and Xu-Dong Fei Co., 5 ♂♂, 1 ♀ (IESNU), 6 ♂♂ (IZCAS). China, Hainan Island, Mt. Wuzhi, 800 m, 19 September 2007, Shu-Chong Bai Co., 1 ♀ (IESNU); 2 May 2008, Shu-Chong Bai and Xu-Dong Fei Co., 3 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀ (IESNU), 2 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀ (IZCAS); 3 May 2008, Shu-Chong Bai and Xu-Dong Fei Co., 3 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀ (IESNU), 3 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀ (IZCAS); 4 May 2008, Shu-Chong Bai and Xu-Dong Fei Co., 14 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀ (IESNU), 13 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀ (IZCAS).

  • Remarks. -- This new species is similar to L. subplumosa Emden, 1965, but it differs from the latter in male frontal vitta about 5.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate, parafacial about 1/3 of postpedicel in width, arista short pubescent; hind tibia without av.

  • Etymology. -- The species name is derived from the Latin “mid” meaning bare and “tibia” meaning tibia, refering to hind tibia of the male without av.

  • Distribution. -- China, Hainan Island (Mt. Bawang, Mt. Jianfeng and Mt. Wuzhi).

  • Limnophora ypocerca Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.
    (Figure 7A–E)

  • Holotype Male. -- Body length 2.8–3.0 mm.

  • Head. Eye bare; frons about 4/9–1/2 of head in width, with 3–4 pairs of small and short ori, 1 pair of retroverted ors, frontal vitta black, about 3.5 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate, covered with dark brown pruinosity, frontal triangle reaching to anterior 3/4 of frons, ocellar seta about 2.0 times as long as the longest ori, posterior vertical seta long and strong, about 4.0 times as long as the longest ori, outer vertical seta short and small, slightly longer than postocellar seta, fronto-orbital plate and parafacial covered with grey pruinosity, parafacial about half of postpedicel in width; antennae black, postpedicel about 3.0 times as long as wide, about 2.5 times as long as pedicel, basal 1/3 of arista becoming wide, aristal hairs slightly short, mostly hairs longer than aristal basal diameter; vibrissal angle situated behind frontal angle in profile; gena covered with caesious pruinosity, genal hairs black and sparse, genal height about 2/7 of eye height, the upper lateral area of the occiput with hairs, proboscis thin and long, prementum shining, about 3.5 times as long as wide; labella small, the length subequal with height of prementum, palpus thin and long, only distal part slightly intumescent, and covered with light grey pruinosity distally, subequal with prementum in length.

  • Thorax. Black in ground color, proepisternum covered with caesious pruinosity, scutum dark brown mostly, postpronotal lobe and its posterior part, notopleuron, postalar callus, anterior and posterior margins of scutoscutellar suture all covered with light grey pruinosity, inner margin of prst-dc rows with a pair of narrow and caesious pruinosity vittae; 2–3 rows of trichoid prst-acr, out of order, dc 2+3, ia 0+2, without obvious pra, basisternum of prosternum with hairs, notopleural, lateral of scutellum, proepisternum hollow in centre, anepimeron, meron and katepimeron all bare; proepisternal setae 2, upper anterior anepisternal seta 1, katepisternal setae 1+2, lower one about half of anterior one, anterior and posterior spiracles small and brown.

  • Wing. Slightly transparent, veins brown, basicosta black, costal spine small or absent, dorsal and ventral surface of rascial node with setae, calypters yellowish, lower calypter protrude to tongue-shaped; halter yellow.

  • Legs. Entirely black, but all coxae, trochanters and femora covered with caesious pruinosity; fore tibia without median p; mid femur without av, basal half with setiform a row, with 2 pre-apical pd, 1–2 basal pv, mid tibia with 1 median p, apical v long and strong; hind femur with 1–2 pre-apical av, without pv, hind tibia with 1 submedial av, 1 medial ad, without pv; all tarsi longer than tibia, pulvilli small, about half of claw in length, claw about 3/5 of 5th tarsomere in length.

  • Abdomen. Abdomen as in Figure 7A. Black in ground color, wide and oviform-shaped, covered with gray to light gray pruinosity, tergites 3 to 5 with narrow and light median vitta, tergites 3 and 4 with broad and dark brown spots respectively, tergite 5 with long strip-shaped lateral spots, sternite 1 bare, posterior margin of sternite 5 wide, without long seta, distal of surstyli intumescent in profile, cerci with an small subcercal structure hidden behind the distal half of cereal plate (Figure 7C-a). Sternite 5, cerci and surstyli as in Figure 7B–E.

  • Female. -- Unknown.

  • Type material. -- Holotype. China, Hainan Island, Mt. Jianfeng, 700–800 m, 30 April 2008, Shu-Chong Bai Co., ♂ (IESNU). Paratype. Same data as holotype, 1 ♀ (IZCAS).

  • Remarks. -- This new species is similar to L. rufimana Strobl, 1893, but it differs from the latter in male frons about 4/9–1/2 of head in width; thorax with 2–3 trichoid prst-acr rows; mid femur without av, mid tibia with 1 median p; distal of surstyli intumescent in profile, a small subcercal structure hidden behind the distal half of cereal plate.

  • Etymology. -- The species name is derived from the Greek words “ypo-” meaning sub-, “cerca” meaning cerci, refering to distal half of cereal plate with a small subcercal structure.

  • Distribution. -- China, Hainan Island (Mt. Jianfeng).

  • Figure 1.

    L. argentifrons (Shinonaga et Kano, 1977). A. male, sternite 5 in ventral view; B. male, Cerci and surstyli in posterior view; C. male, Cerci and surstyli in profile. Scale = 0.2 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f01_01.jpg

    Figure 2.

    L. brevispatula Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.. A. male, sternite 5 in ventral view; B. male, Cerci and surstyli in posterior view; C. male, Cerci and surstyli in profile. Scale = 0.2 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f02_01.jpg

    Figure 3.

    L. cothurnosurstyla Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.. A. male, sternite 5 in ventral view; B. male, sternite 5 in profile; C. male, sternites 2–4 in ventral view; D. male, Cerci and surstyli in posterior view; E. male, Cerci and surstyli in profile. Scale = 0.2 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f03_01.jpg

    Figure 4.

    L. dyadocerca Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.. A. male, sternite 5 in ventral view; B. male, Cerci and surstyli in posterior view; C. male, Cerci and surstyli in profile. Scale = 0.2 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f04_01.jpg

    Figure 5.

    L. longitarsis Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.. A. male, sternite 5 in ventral view; B. male, Cerci and surstyli in posterior view; C. male, Cerci and surstyli in profile. D. female, a. spermatheca in sclerotized view, b. spermatheca in profile, c. spermatheca in membranous view; E. male, sternites 2–4 in ventral view; F. female, ovipositor in dorsal view; G. female, ovipositor in ventral view. Scale = 0.2 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f05_01.jpg

    Figure 6.

    L. nuditibia Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.. A. male, abdomen in profile; B. male, sternite 5 in ventral view; C. male, Cerci and surstyli in posterior view; D. male, Cerci and surstyli in profile; E. female, a. spermatheca in membranous view, b. spermatheca in profile, c. spermatheca in sclerotized view; F. male, sternites 2–4 in ventral view; G. female, ovipositor in dorsal view; H. female, ovipositor in ventral view. Scale = 0.2 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f06_01.jpg

    Figure 7.

    L. ypocerca Xue, Bai et Dong, n. sp.. A. male, abdomen in profile; B. male, sternite 5 in ventral view; C. male, Cerci and surstyli in profile; D. male, Cerci and surstyli in posterior view; E. male, Cerci and surstyli in ventral view, a. the small subcercal structure. Scale = 0.2 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f07_01.jpg

    Acknowledgements

    This paper was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 30870330 and 31172139), the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST grant no. 2006FY110500) and the Foundation of Experimental Centre of Shenyang Normal University (SYZX200902). And also thanks to Dan-Dan Zhao, Jing Du and Xu-Dong Fei for providing the examined materials.

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    Notes

    [1] Editor's note

    Paper copies of this article will be deposited in the following libraries. Universitaetsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg, Frankfurt Germany; National Museum of Natural History, Paris, France; Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois USA; University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA; University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona USA, Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Washington D.C. USA; The Linnean Society, London, England. The date of publication is given in ‘About the Journal’ on the JIS website.

    This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.
    Wan-Qi Xue, Shu-Chong Bai, and Wen-Xiu Dong "A Study of the Genus Limnophora Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae), with Descriptions of Six new species from China," Journal of Insect Science 12(17), 1-20, (1 February 2012). https://doi.org/10.1673/031.012.1701
    Received: 9 January 2010; Accepted: 1 November 2011; Published: 1 February 2012
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