Rectal temperature was determined for 84 black bears (Ursus americanus) during 99 handlings in Great Dismal Swamp, Virginia and North Carolina (USA). All bears had been trapped with cable snares and immobilized with a 2:1 ketamine hydrochloride-xylazine hydrochloride mixture. Temperatures were significantly greater in males and varied significantly by season. Immobilized bears began panting at rectal temperatures >42.0 C. One death occurred at 43.0 C. We recommended cooling measures on black bears at rectal temperatures of ≥40.0 C.
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