Septicemic salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Typhimurium 4, 12: i : 1, 2 was diagnosed in 94 (64.8%) of 145 small passerines comprising nine species, examined in Norway during 1999–2000. The birds were found dead at private feeding places throughout the country. The bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula), Eurasian siskin (Carduelis spinus), common redpoll (Carduelis flammea), and Eurasian greenfinch (Carduelis chloris) were the most frequently affected species. Pathologic findings in 94 carcasses included poor body condition (84%), enlarged spleen (73%), and necrosis of crop/esophagus (78%), liver (53%), spleen (46%), proventriculus (13%), and intestine (5.3%). Histologically, necrosis consisted of debris, fibrin, inflammatory cells, and aggregates of Gram-negative bacteria and occasionally giant cells. Based on information from questionnaires sick and dead birds were observed at feeding places from December to June, with a distinct peak during February and March. The duration of recorded outbreaks varied from less than 1 wk to 4 mo. In a separate study, 1,990 apparently healthy passerines caught at feeding places established for bird-ringing purposes were surveyed for cloacal carriage of Salmonella spp. Forty (2.0%) of the birds examined, representing sampling sites both in southern and northern parts of the country, harbored S. Typhimurium 4, 12: i : 1, 2 in their intestines. The carrier species largely reflected the species most often suffering from fatal infection.
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Vol. 39 • No. 1