Mountain Research and Development (MRD) (online ISSN 1994-7151, print ISSN 0276-4741) is published by the International Mountain Society (IMS), c/o Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern, Mittelstrasse 43, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Institutional Members of the International Mountain Society (IMS)

Andean Initiative, International Potato Center, Lima, Peru

ARU, Afromontane Research Unit, University of the Free State, Phuthaditjhaba, South Africa

CDE, Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern, Switzerland

CIRM, Interdisciplinary Centre for Mountain Research, University of Lausanne, Switzerland

CMN, Canadian Mountain Network, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

CONDESAN, Consortium for the Sustainable Development of the Andean Ecoregion, Lima, Peru

FoLAP, Forum Landscape, Alps, Parks, Bern, Switzerland

GLOMOS, Global Mountain Safeguard Research, United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security, Bonn, Germany and Eurac Research, Bolzano, Italy

ICIMOD, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal

IGF/ÖAW, Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Innsbruck, Austria

MRI, Mountain Research Initiative, Bern, Switzerland

UCAS, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

MRD collaborates with Mountain Forum and The Mountain Partnership to further the cause of mountains on the international development and research agendas.

Editorial Office

Thomas Breu, Editor-in-Chief

Pema Gyamtsho, Editor-in-Chief

Yanfen Wang, Editor-in-Chief

Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel, Associate Editor

Brigitte Portner, Associate Editor

Susanne Wymann von Dach, Associate Editor

Carolina Adler, MountainMedia Editor

Marlène Thibault, Assistant Editor

Production Editors at KnowledgeWorks Global, LTD

International Editorial Board

Irasema Alcántara-Ayala (Mexico City, Mexico), João Carlos Azevedo (Bragança, Portugal), Jörg Balsiger (Geneva, Switzerland), Ketema Bekele (Haramaya, Ethiopia), Jill M. Belsky (Missoula, MT, USA), Astrid Björnsen (Birmensdorf, Switzerland), Rosalind Bryce (Perth, Scotland, UK), Vincent Ralph Clark (Phuthaditjhaba, South Africa), Andrea Fischer (Innsbruck, Austria), J. Marc Foggin (Oxford, United Kingdom), Georg Gratzer (Vienna, Austria), H. Ricardo Grau (Yerba Buena, Tucumán, Argentina), Jun He (Kunming, China), Andreas Heinimann (Bern, Switzerland), Thomas Hofer (Rome, Italy), Bahadar Nawab Khattak (Abbottabad, Pakistan), Hermann Kreutzmann (Berlin, Germany), Karina Liechti (Bern, Switzerland), Graham McDowell (Calgary, Canada), Tamara Mitrofanenko (Vienna, Austria), Geofrey Mukwada (Phuthaditjhaba, South Africa), Sara Nowreen (Dhaka, Bangladesh), Marcus Nüsser (Heidelberg, Germany), Stefano Pagiola (Washington, DC, USA), Manuel Peralvo (Quito, Ecuador), Julio Postigo (Bloomington, USA), Emmanuel Reynard (Lausanne, Switzerland), Nadine Salzmann (Davos, Switzerland), Dietrich Schmidt-Vogt (Freiburg, Germany), Stefan Schneiderbauer (Bolzano, Italy), Eklabya Sharma (Bangalore, India), Surendra Pratap Singh (Dehradun, India), Thomas Streifeneder (Bolzano, Italy), Joerg Szarzynski (Bonn, Germany), Graham Thiele (Lima, Peru), Cecilia Turin (Lima, Peru), Davnah Urbach (Bern and Lausanne, Switzerland), Yanhong Wu (Chengdu, China), Maria Wurzinger (Vienna, Austria), Jianchu Xu (Kunming, China), Kai Xue (Beijing, China), Gete Zeleke (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia), Wei Zhao (Chengdu, China), Anne Zimmermann (Bern, Switzerland).

Representatives of IMS Institutional Members

Carolina Adler (MRI, Switzerland); María Argüello (CONDESAN, Peru); V. Ralph Clark (ARU, South Africa); Stefanie Gubler (FoLAP, Switzerland); Stef de Haan (Andean Initiative, Peru); Andrea Fischer (IGF/ÖAW, Austria); Nicole Olivier (CMN, Canada); Emmanuel Reynard (CIRM, Switzerland); Stefan Schneiderbauer and Joerg Szarzynski (GLOMOS, Italy and Germany); Theresa Tribaldos (CDE, Switzerland); Laurie Ann Vasily (ICIMOD, Nepal); Kai Xue (UCAS, China).

Publication Policy

Mountain Research and Development is published quarterly by the International Mountain Society and is freely available online and open access in collaboration with BioOne (

The journal is subject to the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( Ownership of the copyright in articles is retained by the authors, but anyone may read, download, copy, reuse, distribute, print, search, and link to the full texts of articles in MRD provided that the original authors and source are properly acknowledged and cited. For any reuse or redistribution of a work, the license terms under which the work was published must be made clear.

Print Version

Authors and readers may produce their own printouts from the downloadable PDFs available at On advance request from IMS member institutions, the Editorial Office can arrange for the production of print-ready, press-quality PDF files of individual articles or entire issues for delocalized printing.


MRD is indexed in the Science Citation Index, Current Contents/Agriculture, Biology and Environmental Sciences, Web of Science, BIOSIS Previews, Geo Abstracts, C.A.B. International Series Checklist, AGRICOLA databases, Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts (MGA), CABS (Current Awareness in Biological Sciences), and others. MRD is also listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ProQuest, EBSCO, and Gale/Cengage Learning.


Please address correspondence to:

MRD Editorial Office

Centre for Development and Environment University of Bern Mittelstrasse 43 3012 Bern, Switzerland



Please note that all papers must be submitted online.


Please send material for “MountainMedia” to:

Dr. Carolina Adler

Executive Director, Mountain Research Initiative MRI Coordination Office

Centre for Development and Environment (CDE) University of Bern Mittelstrasse 43 3012 Bern, Switzerland


Back Issues

MRD is published online and open access in collaboration with BioOne. All back issues of MRD from 2000 onwards are available online and free of charge through BioOne; previous issues (1981–2000) are available online through JSTOR (, and single articles as well as entire issues may be purchased there.

For single hardcopy issue sales from Volume 20 through Volume 28, please contact

© 2023 International Mountain Society (IMS) for the journal

© 2023 Authors for the individual articles

"Publisher Information," Mountain Research and Development 43(2), p2, (8 August 2023).
Published: 8 August 2023
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