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1 April 2015 Birds that Eat Nonnative Buckthorn Fruit (Rhamnus cathartica and Frangula alnus, Rhamnaceae) in Eastern North America
Julie A. Craves
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Abstract

The buckthorns Rhamnus cathartica and Frangula alnus are nonnative invasive species in North America whose seeds are primarily dispersed by birds. This paper presents the first major compilation of the bird species that eat R. cathartica and F. alnus in eastern North America, where these buckthorns are most invasive and have few common congeners. Using fecal samples, observations, and an extensive literature search, I document 46 bird species that consume R. cathartica and F. alnus, and discuss which are the most competent dispersers of the seeds. I also correct a frequently repeated belief that “blackbirds” are efficient dispersers of R. cathartica and F. alnus.

Julie A. Craves "Birds that Eat Nonnative Buckthorn Fruit (Rhamnus cathartica and Frangula alnus, Rhamnaceae) in Eastern North America," Natural Areas Journal 35(2), 279-287, (1 April 2015). https://doi.org/10.3375/043.035.0208
Published: 1 April 2015
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