We validated and synthesized reports of historic and current populations of the 3 introduced non-human primate species in Florida—Saimiri sp. (squirrel monkey), Chlorocebus sabaeus (Vervet Monkey), and Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)—using systematic review of literature, content analysis of popular media, expert interviews, and site visits. Invasion success varied among the 3 species: only 1 of 5 squirrel monkey populations was still extant, a single Vervet Monkey population showed little change between the mid-1990s and 2015, and 2 of 3 introduced Rhesus Macaque populations grew, but only 1 was extant. Disparities in invasion success appeared to be primarily influenced by natural history and anthropogenic intervention. Understanding introduced species success is critical to determine current and potential impacts and effectively allocate limited management resources.