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1 July 2003 Tetranychidae (Acari: Prostigmata) of Malay Peninsula: Checklist, key to genera and species and description of three new species
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Abstract

Tetranychid mites previously recorded in Malaysia consist of eight genera with 21 species. This paper records a genus new to Malaysia and three new species (Schizotetranychus hidayahae Yusof & Zhang sp. nov., Tetranychus arifi Yusof & Zhang sp. nov. and Tetranychus ismaili Yusof & Zhang sp. nov.) to the tetranychid fauna ofMalaysia. New hosts and localities of many other species are also recorded. Keys to genera and species of tetranychid mites of Malaysia are provided.

Introduction

The Tetranychidae is an important acarine family in the order Prostigmata; many species of which often cause heavy losses to major food crops and ornamental plants. This family is commonly known as spider mites and is characterized by a stylophore and a pair of long whip-like recurved chelae (stylets). The peritremes arise from the base of the stylophore, ending simply or anastomosing distally.

There are about 1,200 described species of spider mites in the world (Bolland et al. 1998). In Malaysia, Greenstreet & Lambourbe (1933) identified the first tetranychid on Manihot esculenta. Jeppson et al. (1975), Rajaratnam & Hock (1975) and Flechtmann (1981) added three more species to the Malaysian record; and in 1988 Ehara & Tho (1988) treated 16 more species. Yusof & Zhang (2003) added another new genus new toMalaysia and a new species. Until now 21 Malaysian species of this family belong to eight genera: Aponychus, Eutetranychus, Oligonychus, Panonychus, Schizotetranychus, Stylophoronychus, Tetranychus and Tenuipalponychus.

In this paper, we report on the results of a recent survey of spider mites from the Malay Peninsula. We also provide a review of tetranychid mites recorded from Malaysia, with keys to genera and species.

Material and methods

Mite samples were collected from infected leaves in the north, east and central parts of the Malay Peninsula between October 2001 and February 2003. Infected foliage was cut and placed in plastic bags. The leaves were brought to the laboratory and examined under a dissecting microscope. All mites found on the leaves were removed into a vial of 70% alcohol. Each vial was labelled with the locality and date of collection and host plant information.

All the vials were brought to Landcare Research, Auckland, New Zealand. All mites from each vial were then mounted on slides in Hoyer's medium and dried in the oven for 7 to 14 days at 40°C.

The mites were studied using an interference phase-contrast microscope. Line drawings were prepared with the aid of a drawing tube attached to the microscope.Measurements listed below were made in micrometers (µm). Terminology follows that of Lindquist (1985).

All published literature of tetranchid mites from Malaysia was acquired and is listed in this paper. Keys to the genus and species of these were developed during the course of the study.

In cases where new species are described, the holotype will be deposited in the Insect Museum, Entomology Section, Department of Agriculture, Jalan Gallagher,Malaysia. A paratype is deposited in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection (NZAC) at Landcare Research, Auckland.

Key to genera of Tetranychidae found in Malay Peninsula

1. Empodium claw-like or split distally; tarsus I with 2 pairs of duplex setae and tarsus II with 1 pair of duplex setae 2

Empodium claw-like when present, tarsus I with loosely associated setae or with 1 pair of duplex setae, when 2 pairs of duplex setae on tarsus I, then no pair on tarsus II 3

2. Opisthosoma with f1 in marginal position; empodium simple claw; tarsus II with distal member of duplex setae a long solenidion Tenuilpalponychus Channabasavanna & Lakkundi

Opisthosoma with f1 in normal dorsal position 5

3. Opisthosoma with 9 pairs of dorsal setae Stylophoronychus Prasad

Opisthosoma with 10 pairs of dorsal setae 4

4. With 2 pairs of anal setae (ps1–2) Eutetranychus Banks

With 1 pair of anal setae Aponychus Rimando

5. With 2 pairs of para-anal setae (h2–3) 6

With 1 pair of para-anal setae 8

6. Empodium a single claw-like structure as long or longer than the proximoventral hairs, which is set at right angles to the claw Panonychus Yokohama

Empodium ending in a tuft of hairs or claw-like but split into 2 prongs 7

7. Claw-like empodium split into prongs near the middle Schizotetranychus

Trägårdh Empodium split into 3 pairs of proximoventral hairs; 2 pairs of anal setae; ophisthosoma with transverse striae Eotetranychus Oudemans

8. Claw-like empodium as long as or longer than proximoventral hair; tarsus I with 2 pairs of duplex setae adjacent Oligonychus Berlese

Empodiumnot claw-like, divided distally; tarsus I with 2 pairs ofduplex setaewell separated apart Tetranychus Dufor

Aponychus Rimando

1. Aponychus corpuzae Rimando, 1966

  • Aponychus corpuzae Rimando, 1966: 107, Figs 14; Rimando, 1968: 7, Fig 1.; Ehara 1969: 87, Figs 1218; Ehara & Tho, 1988: 3.

    Rimando (1966) separated Aponychus from Eutetranychus by the presence of one instead of two pairs of anal setae. The female is characterized by a laterally concave idiosoma and two groups of setae different in shape and size. The hysterosoma bears 10 pairs of setae and setae e2, f1 and f2 are situated marginally. The leg empodium is reduced to a knob-like protuberance.

    Host and locality: Ehara & Tho (1988) recorded this mite in Malaysia on Bambusa vulgaris and Thyrsostachys siamensis from Kepong, Selangor, and Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan. In this study it was also collected on Syzygium aquaeum from Sungai Udang, Melaka.

    Specimen examined: One female, Sungai Udang, Melaka, collected by Abu Bakar Dawam, 10 January, 2003 on Syzygium aquaeum (Myrtaceae)

  • Eotetranychus Oudemans

    2. Eotetranychus sp.

  • Eotetranychus Oudemans, 1931: 221–236; Pritchard & Baker, 1955: 138; Meyer 1987: 110.

    This genus can be identified by the presence of two pairs of anal setae (ps1–2) and two pairs of paraanal setae (h2–3) in the female. The duplex setae on tarsus I are distal and adjacent. This genus is here recorded in Malaysia for the first time. However, the lack of male specimens in the collection prevented further identification of the specimen to species level.

    Host and locality: This species was found on Lancium domesticum, Jasin, Melaka.

    Specimens examined: Eight females, Jasin, Melaka, collected by Abu Bakar Dawam, 16 January, 2003 on Lancium domesticum.

  • Eutetranychus Banks

    3. Eutetranychus orientalis (Klien, 1936)

  • Anychus orientalis Klien, 1936, 21:3.

    Eutetranychus orientalis, Baker & Prichard, 1960: 464, Fig 5; Ehara, 1969: 86, Figs. 411; Ehara & Lee, 1971: 75, Figs. 48–50; Ehara & Tho, 1988: 2.

  • This genus has a rudimentary empodium consisting of a small rounded knob. Tarsi I and II bear a pair of loosely associated setae. The prodorsal striae in E. orientalis are longitudinal and tuberculate. The striation pattern between setae d1 and e1 vary from longitudinal to v-shaped. The hysterosoma has 10 pairs of dorsal setae arising from tubercles. The terminal eupathium of palpal tarsus in the female is about three times as long as wide and that in the male is about twice longer than wide.

    Host and locality: This species was recorded on Bauhinia purpurea and Manihot sp. from Kepong, Selangor, Carica papaya, Derris sp. and Hevea brasiliensis from Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan (Ehara & Tho, 1988). In this study, this species is recorded for first time on Averrhoa bilimbi (Averrhoaceae) from Sungai Udang, Melaka.

    Specimen examined: One female, Sungai Udang, Melaka, collected by Abu Bakar Dawam, 10 January, 2003 on Averrhoa bilimbi

  • Oligonychus Berlese

    Key to species

    1. Tibia I with 7 tactile setae, tibia II with 5 tactile setae coffeae (Nietner)

    - Tibia I with 9 tactile setae, tibia II with 7 tactile setae; peritremes hooked distally biharensis (Hirst)

    4. Oligonychus biharensis (Hirst, 1925)

  • Paratetranychus biharensis Hirst, 1924: 69, Fig. 15.

    Oligonychus biharensis, Pitchard & Baker, 1955: 364, Figs. 316–318; Ehara & Tho, 1988: 17, Fig. 68.

  • The distally retrorse peritremes differentiate the female of this species from other species in this group. The male aedeagus is enlarged distally with its axis parallel to the shaft. The knob dorsal margin is convex and its acute posterior end pointing downward.

    Host and locality: This species was recorded infesting Bauhinia purpurea andManihot sp. from Kepong, Selangor, and also Grewia paniculata and Tamarindus indicus from Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Ehara & Tho, 1988). In this study the specimen was collected from Artocarpus comminis from Tangkak, Johor. This is the first record of this species on fruit crops in Malaysia.

    Specimens examined: Three females and four males, Tangkak, Johor, collected by Abu Bakar Dawam, 19 February, 2003 on Artocarpus comminis (Moraceae)

  • 5. Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner, 1861)

  • Acarus coffeae Nietner, 1861: 1–31.

    Oligonychus coffeae, Pritchard & Baker, 1955: 315, Figs. 268–269; Ehara & Tho, 1988: 18.

  • The female hysterosoma striae are mostly transverse with v-shape or irregular pattern between setae e1. The male aedeagus bends ventrad at the right angle to the shaft and gradually narrows to a slender truncate tip.

    Host and locality: Oligonychus coffeae was found on Hydnocarpus woodi and Saraca thaipingensis from Kepong, Selangor, Ixora javanica and Litsea umbellata from Port Dickson, Neger Sembilan (Ehara & Tho, 1988). The species is here recorded for the first time on the fruit tree Syzigium aqueum from Sungai Udang, Melaka.

    Specimens examined: Five females and 4 males, Sungai Udang, Melaka, collected by Ng King Ong and Abu Bakar Dawam, 9 January, 2003 on Syzigium aqueum (Myrtaceae).

  • Panonychus Yokoyama

    6. Panonychus citri (McGregor 1916)

  • Tetranychus citri McGregor 1916, 9: 286, plate 14, Figs. 19.

    Panonychus citri, Ehara, 1956: 500; Ehara & Tho, 1988: 3, Fig. 67.

  • This species has dorsal setae borne on strong tubercles and the setae are longer than the distances to the insertions of the next setae. Panonychus citri can be separated from P. ulmi by having the same length of the setae f2 and h1 while setae f2 are a third length of h1 in P. ulmi. Host and locality: Panonychus citri is here reported on Colocasia sp., from Temerloh, Pahang and Fragraria virginia, Rosa chinensis and Hedycarya angustica from Cameron Highland, Pahang. Previously this species was found on Argyreia sp. from Kuala Lumpur,Wilayah Persekutuan (Ehara & Tho, 1988).

    Specimens examined: Two females, Temerloh, Pahang, collected by Yusof Othman, June 20, 2002 on Colocasia sp.; one female, Cameron Highlands, Pahang, collected by Yusof Othman, 14 July, 2002 on Fragraria virginia; 12 females, Cameron Highlands, Pahang, collected by Yusof Othman, 16 July, 2002 on Rosa chinensis (Rosaceae); one female, Cameron Highlands, collected by Yusof Othman, 16 July, 2002 on Hedycarya angustica.

  • Stylophoronychus Prasad

    7. Stylophoronychus vannus (Rimando)

  • Aponychus vannus Rimando, 1968: 8, Fig. 3.

    Stylophoronychus vannus, Meyer, 1987: 88; Ehera & Tho, 1988: 3; Zhang et al., 2000: 44.

    Sinotetranychus vannus, Bolland, Gutierrez & Flechtmann, 1998: 174.

  • The female has nine pairs of hysterosomal setae and three pairs of caudal setae at the marginal position. Their setae are palmate and subcircular.

    Host and locality: This species was recorded on Bambusa vulgaris, Thyrsostachys siamensis and Gigantochloa levis from Kepong, Selangor (Ehara & Tho, 1988).

  • Schizotetranychus Trägårdh

    Key to species

    1. Tibia II with 7 tactile setae; aedeagus with a terminal knob 2

    Tibia II with 4 or 5 tactile setae; aedeagus without a terminal knob 3

    2. Aedeagal knob with posterior projection tapering, not obviously differentiated from the neck colocasiae Ehara & Tho

    Aedeagal knob with posterior projection obviously differentiated from the neck; dorsal margin of the projection subparallel to the ventral margin malayanus Ehara & Tho

    3. Tibia II with 5 tactile setae 4

    Tibia II with 4 tactile setae 5

    4. Distance between pair of c1 about 3 times as long as distance c1 and c2 kochummeni Ehara & Tho

    Distance between pair of c1 about one third as long as distance c1 and c2 hidayahae sp. nov.

    5. Distance between pair of c1 about half as long as distance between c1 and c2 approximatus Ehara & Tho

    Distance between pair of c1 about as long as or slightly shorter distance between c1 and c2 6

    6. Idiosoma without striae on the dorsocentral area except for the caudal portion; setae sc1 noticeably longer than sc2 laevidorsatus Ehara & Tho

    Idiosoma with striae on the dorsocentral area; setae sc1 as long as sc2 saitoi Ehara & Tho

    8. Schizotetranychus approximatus Ehara & Tho

  • Schizotetranychus approximatus Ehara & Tho, 1988: 10–12, Figs. 31–43.

  • This genus is characterized by having the empodium bifid. The dorsocentral setae of this species are longer than the dorsolateral setae. The distance between c1 is about half the distance between c1 and c2. . The male aedeagus is abruptly upturned posteriorly and ending in a rather truncate tip.

    Host and locality: This species was recorded on Bambusa vulgaris from Kepong, Selangor and Thyrsostachys siamensis Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Ehara & Tho, 1988).

  • 9. Schizotetranychus colocasiae Ehara & Tho

  • Schizotetranychus colocasiae Ehara & Tho, 1988: 4–6, Figs. 18, 1114.

  • The length of the dorsal setae is approximately the same as the distance to the insertions of the next setae. The knob of the male aedeagus is tapering and not differentiated from the neck.

    Host and locality: This species was found on Colocasia sp. from Kepong, Selangor (Ehara & Tho, 1988).

  • 10. Schizotetranychus kochummeni Ehara & Tho

  • Schizotetranychus kochummeni Ehara & Tho, 1988: 7–9, Figs. 19–30.

  • The dorsal setae are longer than the distance to the insertions of the next setae. The distance between c1 is about three times the distance between c1 and c2. The male aedeagus turns dorsad at right angle to the shaft, ending in a rather truncate tip.

    Host and locality: The species was recorded on Bambusa sp. from Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Ehara & Tho, 1988).

  • 11. Schizotetranychus laevidorsatus Ehara & Tho

  • Schizotetranychus laevidorsatus Ehara & Tho, 1988: 12–14, Figs. 44–54.

  • The dosorcentral setae are longer than the remaining setae of the body. The peritremes are hooked distally. The distance between c1 is equal to the distance between c1 and c2 .The male aedeagus is sigmoid at the distal part with the axis directed at about the right angle to the shaft.

    Host and locality: This species was recorded on Gigantochloa levis from Kepong, Selangor, and Bambusa sp. from Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Ehara & Tho, 1988).

  • 12. Schizotetranychus malayanus (Ehara & Tho)

  • Schizotetranychus malayanus Ehara & Tho, 1988: 6–7, Figs. 9–10, 1518.

  • The peritremes are dilated distally. The hysterosomal setae are longer than the distance to the insertion of the next setae. The aedeagus is tiny, bent dorsad, with terminal knob slender and as long as the dorsal margin of the shaft. The anterior projection of the knob is angular and very small, but the posterior projection is elongate.

    Host and locality: This species was found on Manihot sp. from Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Ehera & Tho, 1988).

  • 13. Schizotetranychus saitoi Ehara & Tho

  • Schizotetranychus saitoi Ehara & Tho, 1988: 14–16, Figs. 55–66.

  • The dorsal setae are slender and pubescent with c1 the longest. The peritremes are hooked distally. The aedeagus is gently bent dorsad to form a sigmoid distal portion. This species differs from S. laevidorsatus by having transverse striae in the dorsocentral area and the similar length of d1 and e1.

    Host and locality: This species was recorded on Bambusa vulgaris from Kepong, Selangor (Ehara & Tho, 1988).

  • 14. Schizotetranychus hidayahae Yusof & Zhang sp. nov.

  • Description

    Female. Idiosoma 300–325 long, 215 wide. Colour in life orange whitish.

    Prodorsal striae longitudinal (Fig. 1). Prodorsal setae awl-shaped and short. Length of prodorsal setae: v2 45, sc1 40, sc2 30. Distance between setal insertions: v2 - v2 80, sc1 - sc1 95, sc2 - sc2 200. Peritreme simple distally (Fig. 1).

    Palptarsus (Fig. 3): Terminal eupathidium (su′ζ) 7 long and 7 in diameter. Two lateral eupathidia (ul′ζ and ul” ζ) 7 long. Solenidion (ω) 5 long.

    Hysterosomal striae transverse and longitudinal between d1-e1 setae with 10 pairs of short setae dorsally (c1–3, d1–2, e1–2, f1–2, h1; Fig. 1). Para-anal setae h2–3 located ventrally (Fig. 2). Length of setae: c1 30, c2 35, c3 45, d1 35, d2 35, e1 35, e2 35, f1 40, h1 40, h2 25, h3 25. Distance between setal insertions: c1 - c1 20, d1 - d1 25, e1 - e1 25, f1 - f1 70, h1 - h1 30.

    Ventral idiosoma with transverse striae (Fig. 2). Length of coxal-sternal setae; 1a 28, 1b 28, 2a 25, 2b 25, 2c 25, 3a 25, 3b 35, 4a 25, 4b 35. Anal setae (ps) 2 pairs, nude, 15 long. Genital setae 2 pairs, nude; g1 18, g2 18. Pregenital setae (ag) nude, 20 long (Fig. 2).

    Number of normal tactile setae on leg segments: trochanters 1-1-1-1; femora 9-6-3-3; genua 5-5-2-1; tibiae 7-5-4-4; tarsi 9 -7-7-7 (Figs. 6–9). Number of solenidia on leg segments: tibiae 1-0-0-0; tarsi 3-2-1-1. Number of eupathidia on leg segments: tarsi 3-3-0-0.

    Length of leg segments: femur I 78; genu I 38; tibia I 40; tarsus I 48; femur II 55; genu II 35; tibia II 35; tarsus II 45; femur III 53; genu III 33; tibia III 33; tarsus III 50; femur IV 53 genu IV 30; tibia IV 33; tarsus IV 50 (Figs. 6–9)

  • Male. Idiosoma 225 long, 130 wide. Colour in life, orange-whitish. Prodorsal striae longitudinal. Prodorsal setae awl-shaped and short. Length of prodorsal setae: v2 30, sc1 30, sc2 35. Distance between setal insertions: v2 - v2 50, sc1 - sc1 70, sc2 - sc2 120. Peritreme is simple distally.

    Palptarsus (Fig. 4): Terminal eupathidium (su′ ζ) 5 long and 3 diameter. Two lateral eupathidia (ul′ζ and ul” ζ) 5 long. Solenidion (ω) 7 long.

    Hysterosomal striae transverse with 10 pairs of short setae dorsally (c1–3, d1–2, e1–2, f1–2, h1; Fig. 1). Para-anal setae h2–3 located ventrally (Fig. 3). Length of setae: c1 20, c2 20, c3 20, d1 20, d2 20, e1 20, e2 20, f1 20, f2 25 h1 25, h2 25, h3 25. Distance between setal insertions: c1 - c1 20, d1 - d1 15, e1 - e1 15, f1 - f1 40, h1 - h1 8.

    Ventral idiosoma with transverse striae. Length of coxal-sternal setae; 1a 20, 1b 20, 2a 20, 2b 20, 2c 20, 3a 20, 3b 25, 4a 20, 4b 25. Anal setae (ps) 4 pairs, nude, 5 long. Pregenital setae (ag) nude, 15 long.

    Aedeagus without knob, gradually narrowing and curved dorsad to form a sigmoid (Fig. 5).

    Number of normal tactile setae on leg segments: trochanters 1-1-1-1; femora 9-6-3-3; genua 5-5-4-4; tibiae 7-5-4-4; tarsi 9-7-7-7. Number of solenidia on leg segments: tibiae 3-0-0-0; tarsi 3-2-1-1. Number of eupathidia on leg segments: tarsi 3-3-0-0.

    Length of leg segments: femur I 80; genu I 50; tibia I 50; tarsus I 50; femur II 50; genu II 40; tibia II 30; tarsus II 45; femur III 40; genu III 30; tibia III 35; tarsus III 45; femur IV 50 genu IV 30; tibia IV 35; tarsus IV 53.

  • Type material

    Holotype female was collected by Yusof Othman from Lansium domesticum, Jasin, Melaka, Malaysia, on 8 January, 2003. Three paratype males with same data as the holotype.

  • Etymology

    Named after the daughter of the senior author.

  • Remarks

    This species resembles S. saitoi Ehara & Tho, 1988 but can be readily distinguished from the latter by the differences in setal length of the dorsocentral setae (see key above) and the number of leg tactile setae. The aedeagus is quite similar in both species; it is sigmoid distally with a truncate tip.

  • FIGURE 1:

    Female Schizotetranychus hidayahae sp. nov. (female) dorsal view (100 µm).

    f01_149.jpg

    FIGURE 2:

    Schizotetranychus hidayahae sp. nov. (female) ventral view (100 µm).

    f02_149.jpg

    FIGURE 3–5:

    Schizotetranychus hidayahae sp. nov. 3. Female distal palpus segment (10 µm); 4. Male distal palpus segment (10 µm); 5. Aedeagus (5 µm).

    f03_149.jpg

    FIGURE 6–9:

    Schizotetranychus hidayahae sp. nov. (female, showing tarsi and tibiae) 6. Leg I; 7. Leg II; 8. Leg III; 9. Leg IV (100 µm).

    f06_149.jpg

    15. Tenuipalponychus rosae Yusof & Zhang

  • Tenuipalponychus rosae Yusof & Zhang, 2003: 3, Fig. 1–7.

    The dorsal idiosomal setae are broadly spatulate; the dorsocentral setae are short, not extending to the insertion of the next setae. There are 10 pairs of hysterosomal setae with setae f1 in the marginal position. The peritreme is dilated distally. This species resembles T. citri, but can be readily distinguished from the latter by the different patterns of dorsal striae, the relative length of dorsal setae and the relative position of setae f1 that is anterioriad of the f2.

    Host and locality: This species was found on Rosa chinensis, Cameron Highlands, Pahang (Yusof & Zhang 2003).

  • Tetranychus Dufor

    Key to species

    1. Empodia with 2 pairs of proximoventral hairs; aedeagus with distal part very long, flagellate fijiensis Hirst

    Empodia with 3 pairs of proximoventral hairs; aedeagus with distal part not flagellate 2

    2. Aedeagal knob tiny compared with the neck and shaft 3

    Aedeagal knob not tiny 5

    3. Female with proximal set of duplex setae in line with most of the proximal setae malaysiensis Ehara & Tho

    Female with proximal set of duplex setae not in line with most of the proximal setae 4

    4. Aedeagus less than a fourth the length of the dorsal shaft margin, anterior knob angulation inconspicuous and obtuse piercei McGregor

    Aedeagus more than one-fourth the length of the dorsal shaft margin, anvil-shaped; Empodium I with strong mediodorsal spur about a third the length of the proximoventral hairs urticaeKoch

    5. Female with terminal eupathidium of palptarsus less than twice the width; aedeagal knob medium sized with axis forming a small angle with the dorsal margin of shaft 6

    Female with terminal eupathidium of palptarsus about twice as long as the width; aedeagal knob very large, with axis subparallel to dorsal margin shaft kanzawai Kishida

    6. Distance between pair c1 is about twice the distance between c1 and c2; terminal eupathidium of palptarsus just a little longer than wide; aedeagal knob medium sized with axis forming a small angle with the dorsal margin of shaft bambusicola Ehara & Tho

    Distance between pair c1 compare to the distance between c1 and c2 is not as above;terminal eupathidium of palptarsus longer than wide but its length less than twice the width 7

    7. Aedeagal knob with acute anterior projection 8

    Aedeagalknobroundedprojectionsbothanteriorlyandposteriorly,andwithsmalldorsalindentation Neocaledonicus André

    8 Distance between all the dorsocentral setae pairs c1, d1, e1 and f1 are similar; dorsal margin of aedeagal knob straight arifi sp. nov.

    Distance between dorsocentral setae pairs of c1, e1 and f1 similar except the pair d1, which is wider; dorsal margin of aedeagal knob rounded ismaili sp. nov.

    16. Tetranychus bambusicola Ehara & Tho

  • Tetranychus bambusicola Ehara & Tho, 1988: 21–23, Figs. 81–91.

    The hysterosomal striae are longitudinal between pair of setae e1 and between the pair f1, forming a diamond-shaped figure. The peritremes are hooked distally. Female terminal eupathidium of the palptarsus is slightly longer than wide. The male aedeagus is upturned distally; the knob is medium sized, slightly wider than the neck. The anterior projection of the knob is broadly rounded and acute posteriorly.

    Host and locality: This species was recorded on Bambusa glaucescens from Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan and Thyrsostachys siamensis from Kepong, Selangor (Ehara & Tho, 1988).

  • 17. Tetranychus fijiensis (Hirst)

  • Tetranychus fijiensis Hirst, 1924: 523, plate 17.

    This species is distinctive because the empodia are split into two instead of three proximoventral hairs. The female of this species has longitudinal dorsal striae between setae e1 and between the pair f1, forming a diamond-shaped figure between these setae. The male aedeagus is very long, slender, tapering distally and upcurved (flagellate).

    Host and locality: This species was recorded on Elaeis guineensis palm from Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan (Ehara & Tho 1988). In this survey it was recorded from Citrus microcarpus from Muar, Johor. This is the first record on a fruit tree in Malaysia.

    Specimens examined: Three females and one male, Muar, Johor, collected by Ng King Ong and Abu Bakar Dawam, 20 Febuary, 2003 on Citrus microcarpus.

  • 18. Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida

  • Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida, 1927: 105; Ehara, 1956: 504, Figs. 1525; Ehara, 1960: 240; Ehara, 1963: 230, Figs. 1215; Ehara, 1969: 98, Figs. 65–67; Ehara & Wongsiri, 1975: 182, Figs. 115–116; Ehara & Tho 1988: 23.

    The peritremes are strongly hooked distally. The longitudinal dorsal striae between the pair of setae e1 and between the pair f1 form a diamond-shaped figure. Themale aedeagus is about twice the width of the neck with a terminal knob about 4″m in diameter. The anterior end of the knob is broadly rounded and acute at the posterior end.

    Host and locality: Ehara & Tho (1988) recorded this mite on Manihot sp. from Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan and Manihot glaziovii from Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan.

  • 19. Tetranychus malaysiensis Ehara & Tho

  • Tetranychus malaysiensis Ehara & Tho, 1988: 19, Figs. 71–77.

    The female of this species is characterized by tarsus I with proximal duplex setae located more or less in line with 3 proximal tactile setae. The peritremes are hooked distally. The hysterosomal longitudinal striae between pair of setae e1 and between the pair f1 form a diamond-shaped figure. Aedeagus gradually bends dorsad with a minute knob. The knob is slightly wider than the neck.

    Host and locality: This mite was found on Argyreia sp. Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan. The specimens examined in the study were collected from Carica papaya, Sabak Bernam, Selangor, Citrus paradisi from Raub, Pahang, and Artocarpus champeden from Degong, Perak. This is a new record of this species infesting economic crops.

    Specimens examined: 12 females, Sabak Bernam, Selangor, collected by Ng King Ong, 15 January, 2003 on Carica papaya; three females, Raub, Pahang, collected by Yusof Othman, 21 November, 2002 on Citrus paradisi; two females, Degong, Perak, collected by Abu Bakar Dawam, 16 January, 2003 on Artocarpus champeden.

  • 20. Tetranychus neocaledonicus André

  • Eotetranychus neocaledonicus André, 1933: 302.

    Tetranychus neocaledonicus, André, 1959: 53–55, Figs.1, 5.

  • The female T. neocaledonicus has longitudinal striae between pair of setae e1 and between the pair f1, forming a diamond-shaped figure between these setae. The aedeagus bends dorsad at nearly a right angle to the shaft. Both the anterior and posterior projections of the knob are rounded and separated by a small dorsal indentation.

    Host and locality: This is the first record of this species in Malaysia. The sample examined was collected from a laboratory culture in Serdang Selangor.

    Specimens examined: Two females and two males, Serdang, Selangor, collected by Zhi-Qiang Zhang, 12 October, 2001 from a laboratory culture on a Leguminosae.

  • 21. Tetranychus piercei McGregor

  • Tetranychus piercei McGregor, 1950: 257–420.

    The aedeagus is distinctive in that the terminal knob is diminutive and scarcely discernible, forming an angle with the axis of the shaft. The anterior knob angulation is inconspicuous and obtuse. The knob has an acute posterior projection.

    Host and locality: This species was first reported in Malaysia on Manihot esculenta from Ibin, Perak and Elaeis guineensis from Selangor (Ehara & Tho, 1988). In this study the specimen was collected on Rosa chinensis from Serdang, Selangor.

    Specimens examined: Six females and 4 males, Serdang, Selangor, collected by Zhi-Qiang Zhang, 12 October, 2001 on Rosa chinensis.

  • 22. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836

  • Tetranychus urticae Koch 1836: 10; Meyer 1987: 136, Fig. 641.

    Female hysterosomal striae between setal pairs e1 and f1 are longitudinal and form a diamond-shaped figure. The male empodium I bears a strong mediodorsal spur about one-third the length of the proximoventral hairs. The knob of the aedeagus is small and not less than one-fourth of the length of the dorsal margin of the shaft. The margin of the knob is parallel or forming a small angle with the axis of the shaft.

    Host and locality: This species was firstly recorded on Manihot esculenta (Greenstreet & Lambourbe, 1933). In this study we could not find any specimens although this species is widespread throughout the world.

  • 23. Tetranychus arifi Yusof & Zhang sp. nov.

  • Description

    Female. Idiosoma 380–400 long, 260–280 wide. Colour in life yellowish white.

    Prodorsal striae longitudinally (Fig. 10). Prodorsal setae long, slender and pubescent, reaching beyond the base of next setae. Length of prodorsal setae: v2 65, sc1 120, sc2 100. Distance between setal insertions: v2 - v2 70, sc1 - sc1 85, sc2 - sc2 210. Peritreme hooked distally (Fig. 10).

    Palptarsus (Fig. 12): Terminal eupathidium (su′) 10 long and 5 in diameter. Two lateral eupathidia (ul′ζ and ul” ζ), 10 long. Solenidion (ω) 5 long.

    Hysterosomal striae transverse with longitudinal striae between the pairs of e1 and f1, forming a diamond-shaped figure between these setae. Hysterosoma with10 pairs of long setae dorsally (c1–3, d1–2, e1–2, f1–2, h1; Fig. 10). Para-anal setae h3 located ventrally (Fig. 11). Length of setae: c1 110–125, c2 110–125, c3 90–100, d1 110–120, d2 110–120, e1 110–120, e2 110–120, f1 100–110, h1 40–45, h3 35–38. Distance between setal insertions: c1 - c1 85, d1 - d1 90, e1 - e1 65, f1 - f1 55, h1 -h1 30.

    Ventral idiosoma with transverse striae (Fig. 11). Length of coxal-sternal setae; 1a 75, 1b 60, 2a 40, 2b 55, 2c 65, 3a 60, 3b 70, 4a 70, 4b 70. Anal setae (ps) 2 pairs, nude, 25 long. Genital setae 2 pairs, nude; g1 45, g2 45. Pregenital setae (ag) nude, 75 long (Fig. 3).

    Number of normal tactile setae on leg segments: trochanters 1-1-1-1; femora 10-6-4-4; genua 5-5-4-4; tibiae 9-7-6-7; tarsi 12 -11-9-9. Number of solenidia on leg segments: tibiae 1-0-0-0; tarsi 3-2-1-1. Number of eupathidia on leg segments: tarsi 3-3-0-0.

    Length of leg segments: femur I 95–100; genu I 45–50; tibia I 55–60; tarsus I 95–100; femur II 65–75; genu II 45–50; tibia II 45–50; tarsus II 75–80; femur III 60–80; genu III 40–45; tibia III 45–50; tarsus III 85–90; femur IV 85–90 genu IV 45–50; tibia IV 55–60; tarsus IV 95–100 (Figs. 1518).

    Male. Idiosoma 310 long, 200 wide. Colour in life, yellowish white. Prodorsal striae longitudinal. Prodorsal setae long and slender. Length of prodorsal setae: v2 55, sc1 95, sc2 65. Distance between setal insertions: v2 - v2 50, sc1 - sc1 70, sc2 - sc2 140. Peritreme is hooked distally.

    Palptarsus (Fig. 12): Terminal eupathidium (su′ζ) 7 long and 5 diameter. Two lateral eupathidia (ul′ζ and ul” ζ), 7 long. Solenidion (ω) 5 long. Hysterosomal striae transverse with 10 pairs of long setae dorsally (c1–3, d1–2, e1–2, f1–2, h1). Para-anal setae h3 located ventrally. Length of setae: c1 85, c2 85, c3 85, d1 85, d2 85, e1 80, e2 75, f1 85, h1 20, h3 25. Distance between setal insertions: c1 -c1 55, d1 - d1 60, e1 - e1 35, f1 - f1 30, h1 - h1 17.

    Ventral idiosoma with transverse striae. Length of coxal-sternal setae; 1a 50, 1b -50, 2a 40, 2b 55, 2c 60, 3a 40, 3b 50, 4a 40, 4b 50. Anal setae (ps) 4 pairs, nude, 10 long. Pregenital setae (ag) nude, 45 long.

    The aedeagus shaft gradually narrowing and turning dorsad at a right angle to form a neck and knob. The aedeagal knob about twice as wide as the neck, with a rounded anterior base and an acute posterior projection (Fig. 13).

    Number of normal tactile setae on leg segments: trochanters 1-1-1-1; femora 10-6-4-4; genua 5-5-4-4; tibiae 9-7-6-7; tarsi 12-11-9-9. Number of solenidia on leg segments: tibiae 3-0-0-0; tarsi 3-2-1-1. Number of eupathidia on leg segments: tarsi 3-3-0-0.

    Length of leg segments: femur I 75; genu I 45; tibia I 45; tarsus I 75; femur II 50; genu II 35; tibia II 40; tarsus II 68; femur III 55; genu III 30; tibia III 38; tarsus III 65; femur IV 68 genu IV 38; tibia IV 45; tarsus IV 70.

  • Type material

    Holotype female was collected by Yusof Othman from Zea mays, Sabak Bernam Selangor, Malaysia on 10 July, 2002. Eight females and three male paratypes with same data as the holotype.

  • Etymology

    Named after the son of the senior author.

  • Remarks

    This species resembles T. kanzawai but can be readily distinguished from the latter by the following features of its aedeagal knob: the anterior projection is acute, the posterior projection rounded and dorsal margin straight. The terminal eupathidium of the palptarsus is less than twice as long as wide in the male. It also differs from T. papakanzawai (Ehara) in the aedeagal knob shape. The tactile setae on tibia IV of this species number nine tactile setae instead of 10 in T. kanzawai and T. papakanzawai.

  • FIGURE 10:

    Female Tetranychus arifi sp. nov. (female) dorsal view (100 µm).

    f10_149.jpg

    FIGURE 11:

    Tetranychus arifi sp. nov. (female) ventral view (100 µm).

    f11_149.jpg

    FIGURES 12–14:

    Tetranychus arifi sp. nov. 12. Female distal palpus segment (10 µm); 13. Male distal palpus segment (10 µm); 14. Aedeagus (5 µm).

    f12_149.jpg

    FIGURES 15–16:

    Tetranychus arifi sp. nov. (showing female tarsi and tibiae) 15. Leg I; 16. Leg II (100 µm).

    f15_149.jpg

    FIGURES 17–18:

    Tetranychus arifi sp. nov. (showing female tarsi and tibiae) 17. Leg III; 18. Leg IV (100 µm).

    f17_149.jpg

    23 Tetranychus ismaili Yusof & Zhang sp. nov.

  • Description

    Female. Idiosoma 380–420 long, 300–350 wide. Colour in life yellowish white. Prodorsal striae longitudinally (Fig. 19). Prodorsal setae long, slender and pubescent. The length of prodorsal setae: v2 70, sc1 160, sc2 110. Distance between setal insertions: v2 - v2 70, sc1 - sc1 90, sc2 - sc2 280. Peritremes curved distally (Fig. 19).

    Palptarsus (Fig. 21): Terminal eupathidium (su′z) 10 long and 5 diameter. Two lateral eupathidia (ul′ζ and ul” ζ) 10 long. Solenidion (ω) 5 long. Hysterosomal striae transverse with 10 pairs of long setae dorsally (c1–3, d1–2, e1–2, f1–2, h1; (Fig. 19). Para-anal setae h3 located ventrally (Fig. 20). Length of setae: c1 130–140, c2 125–130, c3 110–120, d1 125–130, d2 125–135, e1 125–130, e2 125–135, f1 105–110, h1 40–45, h3 40–45. Distance between setal insertions: c1 - c1 70–75, d1 -d1 100–110, e1 - e1 45–50, f1 - f1 40–45, h1 - h1 20.

    Ventral idiosoma with transverse striae (Fig. 20). Length of coxal-sternal setae; 1a 70, 1b 70, 2a 50, 2b 70, 2c 75, 3a 65, 3b 65, 4a 70, 4b 70. Anal setae (ps) 2 pairs, nude, 25 long. Genital setae 2 pairs, nude; g1 45–50, g2 45–50. Pregenital setae (ag) nude, 80 long (Fig. 20).

    Number of normal tactile setae on leg segments: trochanters 1-1-1-1; femora 10-6-4-4; genua 5-5-4-4; tibiae 9-7-6-7; tarsi 12-10-9-10. Number of solenidia on leg segments: tibiae 1-0-0-0; tarsi 3-2-1-1. Number of eupathidia on leg segments: tarsi 3-3-0-0.

    Length of leg segments: femur I 100–105; genu I 50–55; tibia I 55–60; tarsus I 105–110; femur II 70–75; genu II 45–50; tibia II 45–50; tarsus II 85–90; femur III 70–75; genu III 35–40; tibia III 45–50; tarsus III 90–95; femur IV 95–100 genu IV 45–50; tibia IV 60–65; tarsus IV 110 (Figs. 2427).

  • Male. Idiosoma 275 long, 180 wide. Colour in life yellowish white. Prodorsal striae longitudinally. Prodorsal setae long and slender. Length of prodorsal setae: v2 45, sc1 105, sc2 70. Distance between setal insertions: v2 - v2 50, sc1 - sc1 60 sc2 - sc2 145. Peritremes curved distally.

    Palptarsus (Fig. 22): Terminal eupathidium (su′ζ) 7 long and 5 diameter. Two lateral eupathidia (ul′ζ and ul” ζ) 7 long. Solenidion (ω) 5 long. Hysterosomal striae transverse with 10 pairs of long setae dorsally (c1–3, d1–2, e1–2, f1–2, h1). Para-anal setae h3 located ventrally. Length of setae: c1 85, c2 85, c3 75, d1 85, d2 85, e1 80, e2 80, f1 65, h1 20, h3 20. Distance between setal insertions: c1 -c1 50, d1 - d1 60, e1 - e1 35, f1 - f1 35, h1 - h1 20.

    Ventral idiosoma with transverse striae. Length of coxal-sternal setae; 1a 50, 1b -50, 2a 40, 2b 55, 2c 60, 3a 40, 3b 50, 4a 40, 4b 50. Anal setae (ps) 4 pairs, nude, 15 long. Pregenital setae (ag) nude, 50 long.

    The aedeagal shaft narrowing and turning at a right angle to the form a neck and knob. The knob approximately twice wider than the neck with semicircular dorsal margin. The knob acute anteriorly and rounded posteriorly (Fig. 23).

    Number of normal tactile setae on leg segments: trochanters 1-1-1-1; femora 10-6-4-4; genua 5-5-4-4; tibiae 11-7-6-6; tarsi 12-10-9-10. Number of solenidia on leg segments: tibiae 3-0-0-0; tarsi 3-2-1-1. Number of eupathidia on leg segments: tarsi 3-3-0-0.

    Length of leg segments: femur I 75; genu I 35; tibia I 45; tarsus I 50; femur II 50; genu II 35; tibia II 45; tarsus II 60; femur III 50; genu III 30; tibia III 60; tarsus III 70; femur IV 70 genu IV 35; tibia IV 50; tarsus IV 75.

  • Type material

    Holotype female was collected by Zhi-Qiang Zhang on Bambusa sp. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia on 14 October, 2001. Paratype males and females with same data as holotype.

  • Etymology

    Named in honour of the Director General of Agriculture, Malaysia, Dato' Ismail Ibrahim.

  • Remarks

    This species resembles T. parakazawai (Ehara) and T. kanzawai (Kishida) (Ehara 1999), but can be readily distinguished from the latter by its aedeagal knob, which has an acute anterior projection and rounded posterior projection. It is different from T. arifi in that the aedeagal knob has a dorsal semicircular margin and tibia IV has 10 tactile setae.

  • FIGURE 19:

    Female Tetranychus ismaili sp. nov. (female) dorsal view (100 µm).

    f19_149.jpg

    FIGURE 20:

    Tetranychus ismailis sp. nov. (female) ventral view (100 µm).

    f20_149.jpg

    FIGURES 21–23:

    Tetranychus ismaili sp. nov. 21. Female distal palpus segment (10 µm) ; 22. Male distal palpus segment (10 µm); 23. Aedeagus (5 µm).

    f21_149.jpg

    FIGURES 24–25:

    Tetranychus ismaili sp. nov. (showing female tarsi and tibiae) 24. Leg I; 25. Leg II (100 µm).

    f24_149.jpg

    FIGURES 26–27:

    Tetranychus ismaili sp. nov. (showing female tarsi and tibiae). 26. Leg III; 27. Leg IV (100 µm).

    f26_149.jpg

    Acknowledgements

    The senior author is the recipient of a BioNET INTERNATIONAL Fellowship awarded through ASEANET, which enabled his study on mites in New Zealand. The senior author thanks his wife, Ninik, for her patience, encouragement and help in drawing the mite specimens, and also his staff Ng King Ong and Abu Bakar Dawam for helping him collect some of themite specimens. The junior author's trip to Malaysia in 2001 was funded by CAB International Southeast Asia Regional Centre. He was funded in part by BioNET INTERNATIONAL through ASEANET for the participation in this project and was funded by the Foundation for Research, Science & Technology, New Zealand (Contract C09X0202), for his research programme on mites.

    We are grateful to the following colleagues for reviews of the manuscript: Rosa Henderson and Trevor Crosby (Landcare Research, Auckland) and Prof Carlos Flechtmann (University of Sao Paulo, Brazil).

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    © 2003 Systematic & Applied Acarology Society
    Yusof Othman and Zhi-Qiang Zhang "Tetranychidae (Acari: Prostigmata) of Malay Peninsula: Checklist, key to genera and species and description of three new species," Systematic and Applied Acarology 8(1), 149-173, (1 July 2003). https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.8.1.17
    Accepted: 1 June 2003; Published: 1 July 2003
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