To resolve phylogenetic relationships among all genera and subgenera in Osmundaceae, we analyzed over 8,500 characters of DNA sequence data from seven plastid loci (atpA, rbcL, rbcL–accD, rbcL–atpB, rps4–trnS, trnG–trnR, and trnL–trnF). Our results confirm those from earlier anatomical and single-gene (rbcL) studies that suggested Osmunda s.l. is paraphyletic. Osmunda cinnamomea is sister to the remainder of Osmundaceae (Leptopteris, Todea, and Osmunda s.s.). We support the recognition of a monotypic fourth genus, Osmundastrum, to reflect these results. We also resolve subgeneric relationships within Osmunda s.s. and find that subg. Claytosmunda is strongly supported as sister to the rest of Osmunda. A stable, well-supported classification for extant Osmundaceae is proposed, along with a key to all genera and subgenera.
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