This is the 13th supplement since publication of the seventh edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists’ Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made between 1 May 2012 and 15 May 2013 by the AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature-North and Middle America. The Committee has continued to operate in the manner outlined in the 42nd Supplement (AOU 2000). Adolfo Navarro, of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, has recently been added to the committee; his term will begin in 2013–2014.
Changes in this supplement include the following: (1) six species (Pterodroma solandri, P.feae, Gallinula chloropus, Agapornis roseicollis, Nandayus nenday, and Leucosticte arctoa) are added to the main list on the basis of new distributional information (including three species transferred from the Appendix); (2) one species (Artemisiospiza nevadensis) is added to the main list because of a split from a species already on the list; (3) two species names are changed (to Puffinus baroli and Myrmeciza zeledoni) because of splits from extralimital species; (4) two species (Schiffornis veraepacis and S. stenorhyncha) are added by being split both from an extralimital taxon (S. turdina) and from each other; (5) one species (Thalurania fannyi) is lost because of a merger with another species already on the list (T. colombica); (6) one species name is changed (to Loxops mana) by transfer from one genus to another; (7) the distributional statements or notes of three species (Automolus rubiginosus, Dendrocincla fuliginosa, and Troglodytes aedon) are changed because of splits of extralimital species; (8) one scientific name (Chlorospingus flavopectus) is corrected in accordance with the rules of priority; (9) one genus (Psiloscops) is added as a result of a split from another genus, resulting in a change to one scientific name (P. flammeolus); (10) five genera (Aphriza, Eurynorhynchus, Limicola, Tryngites, and Philomachus) are lost by merger (into Calidris) and the scientific names of five species (C. virgata, C.pygmea, C.falcinellus, C. subruficollis, and C. pugnax) are thereby changed, and one other genus (Chloropipo) is lost by merger (into Xenopipo) and the scientific name of one species (Xenopipo holochlora) is thereby changed; (11) two genera (Terenura and Pipra) are lost by being split, three genera (Euchrepomis, Dixiphia, and Ceratopipra) are added as a result of these splits, and the scientific names of four species (Euchrepomis callinota, Dixiphia pipra, Ceratopipra mentalis, and Ceratopipra erythrocephala) are thereby changed; (12) one genus (Margarobyas) is added and one genus (Gymnoglaux) lost because of a nomenclatural problem with the prior name; (13) the spelling of one genus name (Ptiliogonys) is corrected, with a resulting change in two species names (P. cinereus and P. caudatus) and one family name (Ptiliogonatidae); (14) the citation for nine species (Dendragapus obscurus, Limnodromus scolopaceus, Patagioenasfasciata, Tyrannus verticalis, Salpinctes obsoletus, Oreothlypis celata, Chondestes grammacus, Passerina amoena, and Spinas psaltria) is changed; (15) the authorities for two genera (Coragyps and Numida) are changed; (16) the designation of the type species of one genus (Erolia) is corrected; (17) two generic names (Macroramphus and Microptera) are changed in accordance with the rules of priority; (18) the English name of one species (Thamnophilus atrinucha) is changed to better reflect its phylogenetic relationships; (19) the English names of two species (Thalurania colombica and Artemisiospiza belli) are changed as a result of taxonomic changes; and (20) one additional species (Harpagus bidentatus) is added to the list of species known to occur in the United States.
One subfamily name (Drepanidinae) is deleted from the main list because of new phylogenetic data, and the species formerly included in this subfamily are moved to a new position within the family Fringillidae. New linear sequences are adopted for families in the order Charadriiformes, genera and species in the families Pipridae and Mimidae, and species in the genera Calidris and Haemorhous, all because of new phylogenetic data. The spelling of the name of one order (Pterocliformes) is corrected as a consequence of a previous correction to a family name.
Literature that provides the basis for the Committee's decisions is cited at the end of this supplement, and citations not already in the Literature Cited of the seventh edition (with supplements) become additions to it. An updated list of the bird species known from the AOU Check-list area can be found at http://checklist.aou.org/taxa/.
The following changes to the seventh edition (page numbers refer thereto) and its supplements result from the Committee's actions:
pp. xvii-liv. Change the number in the title of the list of species to 2,090. Insert the following names in the proper position as indicated by the text of this supplement:
Pterodroma solandri Providence Petrel. (A)
Pterodroma feae Fea's Petrel.
Puffinus baroli Barolo Shearwater. (A)
Gallinula chloropus Common Moorhen. (A)
Calidris virgata Surfbird.
Calidrisfalcinellus Broad-billed Sandpiper. (A)
Calidrispygmea Spoon-billed Sandpiper. (A)
Calidris subruficollis Buff-breasted Sandpiper.
Psiloscops flammeolus Flammulated Owl.
Margarobyas lawrencii Bare-legged Owl.
Thalurania colombica Crowned Woodnymph.
Agapornis roseicollis Rosy-faced Lovebird. (I)
Nandayus nenday Nanday Parakeet. (I)
Thamnophilus atrinucha Black-crowned Antshrike.
Euchrepomis callinota Rufous-rumped Antwren.
Myrmeciza zeledoni Zeledon's Antbird.
Schiffornis veraepacis Northern Schiffornis.
Schiffornis stenorhyncha Russet-winged Schiffornis.
Xenopipo holochlora Green Manakin.
Dixiphiapipra White-crowned Manakin.
Ceratopipra mentalis Red-capped Manakin.
Ceratopipra erythrocephala Golden-headed Manakin.
Ptiliogonys cinereus Gray Silky-flycatcher.
Ptiliogonys caudatus Long-tailed Silky-flycatcher.
*Chlorospingusflavopectus Common Bush-Tanager.
Artemisiospiza nevadensis Sagebrush Sparrow.
Artemisiospiza belli Bell's Sparrow.
Leucostictearctoa Asian Rosy-Finch. (A)
Loxops mana Hawaii Creeper. (H)
Delete the following names:
Puffinus assimilis Little Shearwater. (A)
Aphriza virgata Surfbird.
Eurynorhynchus pygmeus Spoon-billed Sandpiper. (A)
Limicola falcinellus Broad-billed Sandpiper. (A)
Tryngites subruficollis Buff-breasted Sandpiper.
Otusflammeolus Flammulated Owl.
Gymnoglaux lawrencii Bare-legged Owl.
Thalurania colombica Violet-crowned Woodnymph.
Thalurania fanny i Green-crowned Woodnymph.
Thamnophilus atrinucha Western Slaty-Antshrike.
Terenura callinota Rufous-rumped Antwren.
Myrmeciza immaculata Immaculate Antbird.
Schiffornis turdina Thrush-like Schiffornis.
Chloropipo holochlora Green Manakin.
Piprapipra White-crowned Manakin.
Pipra mentalis Red-capped Manakin.
Pipra erythrocephala Golden-headed Manakin.
Ptilogonys cinereus Gray Silky-flycatcher.
Ptilogonys caudatus Long-tailed Silky-flycatcher.
*Chlorospingus ophthalmicus Common Bush-Tanager.
Artemisiospiza belli Sage Sparrow.
Oreomystis mana Hawaii Creeper. (H)
Change the sequence of families, and included genera and species, in the Charadriiformes to:
Change the sequence of species in Calidris to:
Change the sequence of species in the PIPRIDAE to:
Change the sequence of species in the MIMIDAE to:
Change the sequence of species in Haemorhous to:
Move the genera Telespiza through Melamprosops, and their included species, to follow Pyrrhulapyrrhula.
p. 13. Following the account for Pterodroma macroptera, insert the following new species account:
Pterodroma solandri (Gould). Providence Petrel.
Procellaria Solandri Gould, 1844, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 57 (Australia = Bass Strait.)
Habitat.—Pelagic waters; nests in burrows and rock crevices, mostly on forested slopes and mountain summits on islands.
Distribution.—Breeds primarily on Lord Howe Island, off Australia. Small numbers also breed on Philip Island off Norfolk Island; formerly bred on Norfolk Island.
Ranges at sea in the Tasman Sea (some year-round) south to Tasmania; a few reach New Zealand waters. At least some of the population are trans-equatorial migrants and appear to be regular in the northwest Pacific from off Japan to southern Kamchatka.
Recorded (status uncertain, but possibly regular, especially in fall) on 15 September 2011, about 86 km north-northwest of Attu Island, Aleutian Islands—at least 10 individuals (many photographed) were noted (Cooper and Mackiernan 2012). Photos from off Westport, Washington, on 11 September 1983, and off Tofino, British Columbia, on 23 September 2006, might also pertain to this species.
Notes.—Also known as Solander's Petrel.
p. 16. Before the account for Pterodroma cookii, insert the following new species account:
Pterodromafeae (Salvadori). Fea's Petrel.
Oestralata feae Salvadori, 1899, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova 40:305. (San Nicolas Island, Cape Verde Islands.)
Habitat.—Pelagic waters; nests in burrows or crevices on islands.
Distribution.—Breeds on the Cape Verde Islands and on Bugio Island in the Desertas Islands; possibly also on the Azores.
Ranges at sea in the eastern North Atlantic, at least casually north to the United Kingdom.
Rare but annual in western Atlantic waters off North America; most records are in late spring and are from off North Carolina, but documented north to Nova Scotia and reported south to Georgia (Dunn et al. 2012). Accidental inland in Virginia following Hurricane Fran (September 1996; Howell 2012). Data from geolocators indicated that one individual from Bugio Island (of 17 tracked) wintered off the coast of Georgia and Florida in 2007–2008 (Ramirez et al. 2013).
Notes.—This North Atlantic species and Pterodroma madeira Mathews, 1934 [Zino's Petrel] were treated as separate species from P. mollis by Bourne (1983). The two geographically well-separated populations of P. feae, from Cape Verde Island and the Desertas Islands, have been treated as separate species—P.feae [Fea's Petrel] and P. deserta Mathews, 1934 [Desertas Petrel], respectively—on the basis of differences in nesting phenology and vocalizations (Robb and Mullarney 2008). Fea's Petrel (sensu lato) is also known as Cape Verde Petrel.
p. 22. Puffinus baroli is treated as a species separate from P. assimilis. Remove the account for P. assimilis and insert the following new species account:
Puffinus baroli (Bonaparte). Barolo Shearwater.
Procellaria baroli Bonaparte, 1857, Consp. Gen. Avium 2:204. (ex Mediterraneo…Insula deserta prope Maderam…Insults Canariis; restricted to Desertas by Bannerman, 1914, Ibis p. 477.)
Habitat.—Pelagic Waters; nests in burrows or crevices on islands.
Distribution.—Breeds on northern Macaronesian islands of the eastern Atlantic (the Azores, Madeira, the Salvages, and Canary Islands).
Accidental off Nova Scotia (Sable Island, 1 September 1896, specimen; Dwight 1897; also recent sight reports) and Massachusetts (off Nantucket Island, 25 August 2007, photos; North American Birds 62:40, 62:190). A specimen from South Carolina (probably from August 1883; Peters 1924), previously accepted as Puffinus assimilis (and tentatively as P. a. baroli), has been reidentified as Puffinus lherminieri (fide Howell 2012).
Notes.—Puffinus baroli, formerly considered conspecific with P. assimilis, is treated as a separate species on the basis of differences in mtDNA, vocalizations, and morphology (Austin et al. 2004, Robb and Mullarney 2008).
p. 51. Change the heading Genus CORAGYPS Geoffroy to Genus CORAGYPS Le Maout, and change the attribution of the genus name in the citation from “Geoffroy, 1853, in Le Maout” to “Le Maout, 1853” based on the findings of Kashin (1978), Gregory (1998), and Gregory and Dickinson (2012).
p. 79. Insert the following as an additional synonym of Melanitta:
Macroramphus Lesson, 1828, Man. d'Orn., ed. 2, 2:414. Type, by original designation Anas perspicillata Linnaeus.
p. 90. A record of the Double-toothed Kite, Harpagus bidentatus, in the United States is recognized. After the last sentence in the Distribution statement, add the following new paragraph:
Accidental on the upper Texas coast (second-year bird, 4 May 2011, High Island, photo; Dunn et al. 2012).
pp. 121,176, 220, 413, 473, 535, 613, 637, and 667. Change the citations for Dendragapus obscurus, Limnodromus scolopaceus, Patagioenas fasciata, Tyrannus verticalis, Salpinctes obsoletus, Oreothlypis celata, Chondestes grammacus, Passerina amoena, and Spinus psaltria from “Say, 1823, in Long, Exped. Rocky Mount.” to “Say, 1822, in James, Acct. Exped. Rocky Mount.” These species were described by Thomas Say in Account of an expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, compiled by Edwin James, which was published in what had heretofore been accepted to be early 1823. Woodman (2010) presented evidence that the publication was available and for sale in December 1822. Woodman also noted that James, rather than Long, who commanded the expedition, was the primary editor of the Account, which was compiled from the notes of several of the expedition's members.
p. 123. Replace the citation for the genus name Numida with the following:
Numida Linnaeus, 1764, Mus. Adolphi Friderici, 2, Prodromus, p. 27. Type, by monotypy, Phasianus meleagris Linnaeus.
This was covered by ICZN Opinion 67 (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1916); see also Kashin (1978) and Gregory and Dickinson (2012).
p. 137. After the account for Gallinula galeata, insert the following new account:
Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus). Common Moorhen.
Fulica Chloropus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1:152. (in Europa = England.)
Habitat.—Freshwater marshes, lakes, and ponds with tall, dense emergent vegetation (Tropical to Temperate zones).
Distribution.—Breeds from the British Isles, southern Scandinavia, central Russia, southern Siberia, Sakhalin, and Japan south throughout most of Eurasia and Africa to the eastern Atlantic islands, southern Africa, the borders of the northern Indian Ocean (including Sri Lanka), the East Indies (to Sumbawa and Sulawesi), Philippines, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu, Bonin, and Volcano islands.
Winters from the British Isles, southern Scandinavia, southern Russia, and eastern China south throughout the remainder of the breeding range, casually to the Seven Islands of Izu.
Casual or accidental on migration in Kamchatka and the Commander Islands. Accidental in the Aleutian Islands (juv. male, 12–14 October 2010, Shemya Island; Withrow and Schwitters 2012).
Notes.—See Notes under Gallinula galeata.
pp. 141–217. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Baker et al. 2007,2012) have shown that the current linear sequence of families in the order Charadriiformes does not accurately reflect their evolutionary relationships.
Replace the existing Notes under the heading Order CHARADRIIFORMES: Shorebirds, Gulls, Auks, and Allies with the following:
Rearrange the sequence of suborders and families of Charadriiformes, with their included subfamilies, genera, and species, as follows:
pp. 165–175. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Gibson and Baker 2012) has shown that the current generic limits and linear sequence of species within the tribe Calidrinini do not accurately reflect their evolutionary relationships.
Delete the headings Genus APHRIZA Audubon, Genus EURYNORHYNCHUS Nilsson, Genus LIMICOLA Koch, Genus TRYNGITES Cabanis, and Genus PHILOMACHUS Merrem, and move the citations under these headings into the synonymy of Calidris. Change Aphriza virgata (Gmelin) to Calidris virgata (Gmelin), Eurynorhynchuspygmeus (Linnaeus) to Calidris pygmea (Linnaeus), Limicola falcinellus (Pontoppidan) to Calidris falcinellus (Pontoppidan), Tryngites subruficollis (Vieillot) to Calidris subruficollis (Vieillot), and Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus) to Calidris pugnax (Linnaeus).
Under the heading Genus CALIDRIS Merrem, replace the existing Notes with the following:
Notes.—Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (Gibson and Baker 2012) indicate that the species previously known as Aphriza virgata, Eurynorhynchus pygmeus, Limicola falcinellus, Tryngites subruficollis, and Philomachus pugnax form a clade with species already in Calidris. The name Calidris has priority for this clade (Banks 2012). Linear sequence of species derived from Gibson and Baker (2012).
Rearrange the sequence of species in Calidris as follows:
Calidris tenuirostris (Horsfield)
Calidris canutus (Linnaeus)
Calidris virgata (Gmelin)
Calidris pugnax (Linnaeus)
Calidris falcinellus (Pontoppidan)
Calidris acuminata (Horsfield)
Calidris himantopus (Bonaparte)
Calidris ferruginea (Pontoppidan)
Calidris temminckii (Leisler)
Calidris subminuta (Middendorff)
Calidris pygmea (Linnaeus)
Calidris ruficollis (Pallas)
Calidris alba (Pallas)
Calidris alpina (Linnaeus)
Calidris ptilocnemis (Coues)
Calidris maritima (Brünnich)
Calidris bairdii (Coues)
Calidris minuta (Leisler)
Calidris minutilla (Vieillot)
Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot)
Calidris subruficollis (Vieillot)
Calidris melanotos (Vieillot)
Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus)
Calidris mauri (Cabanis)
In the species account for Calidris virgata, replace the existing Notes with the following:
Notes.—Formerly placed in the genus Aphriza. See comments under Calidris.
In the species account for Calidris pygmea, replace the existing Notes with the following:
Notes.—Formerly placed in the genus Eurynorhynchus. See comments under Calidris.
In the species account for Calidris falcinellus, insert the following:
Notes.—Formerly placed in the genus Limicola. See comments under Calidris.
In the species account for Calidris subruficollis, insert the following:
Notes.—Formerly placed in the genus Tryngites. See comments under Calidris.
In the species account for Calidris pugnax, insert the following:
Notes.—Formerly placed in the genus Philomachus. See comments under Calidris.
p. 166. Change the designation of the type species of the generic name Erolia to “type, by monotypy, Erolia variegata Vieillot = Tringa ferruginea Pontoppidan.” Tringa ferruginea is an earlier name for the same species as Scolopax testacea (Banks 2012).
p. 178. Replace the heading Subgenus PHILOHELA Gray with Subgenus MICROPTERA Nuttall and replace the current citation under this heading with:
Microptera Nuttall, 1834, Man. Orn. II, p. 192. Type, by original designation, Scolopax minor Gmelin.
p. 217. Change the heading Order PTEROCLIDIFORMES: Sandgrouse to Order PTEROCLIFORMES: Sandgrouse. The family name Pteroclididae, an unjustified modification of Pteroclidae Bonaparte, 1831 (Bock 1994), was corrected in a previous supplement (Chesser et al. 2012), but the name of the order, which uses the same root, was not corrected.
p. 233. Following the account for Psittacula krameri, insert the following new heading and species account:
Genus AGAPORNIS Selby
Agapornis Selby, 1836, Nat. Libr., Parrots, p. 117. Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1840, p. 53), Psittacus swinderianus Kuhl.
Agapornis roseicollis (Vieillot). Rosy-faced Lovebird.
Psittacus roseicollis Vieillot, 1817 (1818), Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. 25:377. (parties intérieures du Cap de Bonne-Espérance = Interior of the Cape of Good Hope.)
Habitat.—In North America, non-native plantings in deserts and residential neighborhoods; appears to be restricted to areas near water. In southwest Africa, occupies a variety of habitats, including dry wooded country, sub-desert steppe, savanna woodland, woodlands along rivers, and cultivated lands.
Distribution.—Resident in southwestern Africa from Angola and Namibia to northwestern South Africa.
Introduced and established in the greater metropolitan Phoenix area, Arizona. Released individuals first noted in 1987; local flocks and colonies established by the mid-1990s. Now widely present in the Phoenix region (Corman and Wise-Gervais 2005, Radamaker and Corman 2011).
p. 236. Following the account for Aratinga pertinax, insert the following new heading and species account:
Genus NANDAYUS Bonaparte
Nandayus Bonaparte, 1854, Rev. et Mag. Zool. (2), 6:150. Type, by monotypy, Psittacus melanocephalus Vieillot (not of Linné) = Psittacus nenday Vieillot.
Nandayus nenday (Vieillot). Nanday Parakeet.
Psittacus nenday Vieillot, 1823, in Bonnaterre and Vieillot, Tabl. Encycl. Méth. (Ornithol.) 3 (93):1400. (Paraguay.)
Habitat.—Various non-native plantings in Florida and in southern California, where it is also partial to native sycamore trees; in South America partial to palm groves and open forests.
Distribution.—Resident in central-southern South America from southwestern Brazil and southeastern Bolivia to central Paraguay and northern Argentina.
Introduced and established in peninsular Florida, primarily in the central Gulf Coast region (largest populations in Pinellas County) with smaller numbers near St. Augustine and on the southern Atlantic Coast. First releases detected in 1969 and considered established by 2004 (Pranty and Lovell 2004), with additional spreading by 2011 (Pranty and Lovell 2011). A small population present by 1985 in coastal southern California (primarily southern Ventura and Los Angeles counties; Pranty and Garrett 2011), but not yet considered established. Rare and local in Puerto Rico (introduced probably in the early 1970s), where found primarily along the northeast coast.
A small population that existed at Coney Island, Brooklyn, New York, has now disappeared. Escaped birds have been widely reported elsewhere in the United States.
Notes.—Formerly (AOU 1998) known as Black-hooded Parakeet. Also known as Nanday Conure.
p. 254. Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences (Proudfoot et al. 2007, Wink et al. 2009) indicate that Otusflammeolus is not closely related to other species of Otus but is instead sister to species of Megascops.
Following the species account for Otus sunia, insert the following heading and Notes:
Genus PSILOSCOPS Coues
Psiloscops Coues, 1899, Osprey 3:144. Type, by original designation, Scopsflammeola [sic] Kaup.
Notes.—Formerly merged with Otus (e.g., AOU 1983, 1998) but now treated as a separate genus on the basis of genetic data, which show it to be sister to Megascops (Proudfoot et al. 2007, Wink et al. 2009).
Change Otus flammeolus (Kaup) to Psiloscops flammeolus (Kaup), move the account for this species to follow the heading and Notes for Psiloscops, and replace existing Notes with the following:
Notes.—See Notes under Psiloscops. Genetic, vocal, and morphological differences between this species and screech-owls of the genus Megascops indicate that it is best placed in a separate genus (Wink et al. 2009). Also known as Flammulated Screech-Owl.
p. 257. Olson and Suárez (2008) noted that Gymnoglaux is a junior synonym of Gymnasio (now included in Megascops) and that a new genus name was needed for Gymnoglaux lawrencii. They described the new genus Margarobyas for this species.
Following the species account for Megascops nudipes, replace the heading Genus GYMNOGLAUX Cabanis with the following:
Genus MARGAROBYAS Olson and Suárez
Margarobyas Olson and Suárez, 2008, Zootaxa 1960:67. Type, by original designation, Gymnoglaux lawrencii Sclater and Salvin.
Return the citation for Gymnoglaux to the synonymy of Megascops, and change the citation to the following: Gymnoglaux Cabanis, 1855, J. Ornithol. 3:465. Type, by monotypy, Strix nudipes Daudin.
Change Gymnoglaux lawrencii Sclater and Salvin to Margarobyas lawrencii (Sclater and Salvin), place the account for this species to follow the heading for Margarobyas, and substitute the following for the Notes at the end of the species account:
Notes.—Formerly merged into Otus, following Marshall and King in Amadon and Bull (1988), as Cuban Screech-Owl, but separated on the basis of strong differences in morphology and vocal patterns. Formerly placed in Gymnoglaux, but this is a junior synonym of Gymnasio (Olson and Suárez 2008). Also known as Cuban Bare-legged Owl or Cuban Screech-Owl.
p. 294. Thalurania fannyi is treated as a junior synonym of T. colombica, following Donegan (2012b) and Remsen et al. (2013). Remove the current species accounts for T. colombica and T.fannyi and insert the following new species account:
Thalurania colombica (Bourcier). Crowned Woodnymph.
Ornismya Colombica Bourcier, 1843, Rev. Zool. [Paris], 6, p. 2. (in Colombie = San Agustín, Magdalena Valley, Colombia).
Habitat.—Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest, Secondary Forest, Montane Evergreen Forest, Tropical Deciduous Forest (0– 1,900 m).
Distribution.—Lowlands [townsendi group] of Caribbean slope from Guatemala and Belize south to Costa Rica and western and central Panama (east to Canal area and eastern Panamá province); lowlands to 1900 m [colombica group] of northern Colombia and western Venezuela; [fannyi group] eastern Panama (eastern Colón, Darién, and eastern San Blas) and northwestern Colombia; and [hypochlora group] Pacific slope of southwestern Colombia south to northwestern Peru.
Notes.— Groups: T. townsendi Ridgway, 1888 [Violet-crowned Woodnymph], T. colombica [Colombian Woodnymph], T. fannyi DeLattre and Bourcier, 1846 [Green-crowned Woodnymph], and T. hypochlora Gould, 1871 [Emerald-bellied Woodnymph]. Formerly treated as two species T. colombica (including T. townsendi) and T. fannyi (including T. hypochlora) on the basis of Escalante-Pliego and Peterson (1992), but merged due to evidence of unrestricted gene flow between populations (Donegan 2012b).
Change the current Notes for Thalurania ridgwayi to:
Notes.—Escalante-Pliego and Peterson (1992) provided reasons for treating T. ridgwayi as a species distinct from T. colombica.
p. 352. The extralimital species Automolus rufipectus is treated as a separate species from A. rubiginosus, following Krabbe (2008) and Remsen et al. (2013). Add the following sentence to the end of the existing Notes: Formerly included extralimital species A. rufipectus Bangs, 1898 [Santa Marta Foliage-Gleaner], which is separated on the basis of differences in vocalizations (Krabbe 2008).
p. 355. The extralimital species Dendrocincla turdina is treated as a separate species from D. fuliginosa, following Weir and Price (2011) and Remsen et al. (2013). Remove mention of the turdina group from the distributional statement for D. fuliginosa and substitute the following for the existing Notes for this species:
Notes.—Groups: D. merulo ides (Lafresnaye, 1851) [Plain-brown Woodcreeper], D. fuliginosa [Line-throated Woodcreeper], and D. atrirostris (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1838) [D'Orbigny's Woodcreeper]. Formerly included extralimital species D. turdina (Lichtenstein, 1820) [Plain-winged Woodcreeper], which is separated on the basis of genetic and vocal differences (Weir and Price 2011).
p. 362. Change the English name of Thamnophilus atrinucha from Western Slaty-Antshrike to Black-crowned Antshrike, following Remsen et al. (2013), and replace the existing Notes with the following:
p. 366. Terenura callinota is transferred to the new genus Euchrepomis.
Following the account for Formicivora grisea, replace the heading Genus
TERENURA Cabanis and Heine and the citation under this heading with the following heading, citation, and Notes:
Genus EUCHREPOMIS Bravo et al. Euchrepomis Bravo et al., 2012, Mol. Phylo. Evol. 65:289. Type, by original designation, Formicivora callinota Sclater.
Notes.—Newly separated from Terenura because genetic data (Bravo et al. 2012) indicate that the species callinota is not closely related to the type species of that genus.
Change Terenura callinota (Sclater) to Euchrepomis callinota (Sclater), place the account for this species under the heading and notes for Euchrepomis, make the appropriate changes in generic names or abbreviations within the existing Notes, and insert the following at the end of the existing Notes: Formerly placed in the genus Terenura. See comments under Euchrepomis.
p. 368. Myrmeciza zeledoni is treated as a separate species from the extralimital species M. Immaculata, following Donegan (2012a) and Remsen et al. (2013). Replace the account for M. Immaculata with the following new species account:
Myrmeciza zeledoni Ridgway. Zeledon's Antbird.
Myrmeciza zeledoni Ridgway, 1909, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 22:74. (Guayobo, Costa Rica.)
Habitat.—Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest (300–1,700 m; upper Tropical and Subtropical zones).
Distribution.—Resident on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica (Cordillera de Talamanca, Cordillera Central, and Dota Mountains) and in Panama (recorded Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Veraguas, and eastern Darién).
Notes.—Formerly considered conspecific with M. Immaculata (Lafresnaye, 1845) [Immaculate Antbird] of northern South America, but treated as a separate species on the basis of vocal differences (Donegan 2012a).
p. 416. Schiffornis veraepacis and S. stenorhyncha are treated as separate species from the extralimital species S. turdina, following Nyári (2007), Donegan et al. (2011), and Remsen et al. (2013). Delete the species account for S. turdina and replace it with new accounts for S. veraepacis and S. stenorhyncha as follows:
Schiffornis veraepacis (Sclater and Salvin). Northern Schiffornis.
Heteropelma veraepacis Sclater and Salvin, 1860, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 28:300. ([Choctum], Vera Paz, Guatemala.)
Habitat.—Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest (0–800 m; Tropical Zone). Distribution.–Resident on the Gulf-Caribbean slope of Middle America from southern Veracruz, northern Oaxaca, Tabasco, northern Chiapas, Campeche and Quintana Roo, Mexico, south to Nicaragua, on both slopes of Costa Rica (absent from the dry northwest) and Panama (east to Codé and western Panama province), and western Colombia through Ecuador south to northwestern Peru (Tumbes).
Notes.—Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998), with S. stenorhyncha, treated as conspecific with S. turdina (Wied) [Brown-winged Schiffornis] of northern South America, but here considered specifically distinct on the basis of range overlap and differences in vocalizations and genetics (Nyári 2007, Donegan et al. 2011).
Schiffornis stenorhyncha (Sclater and Salvin). Russet-winged Schiffornis.
Heteropelma stenorhyncha Sclater and Salvin, 1869, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1868, pp. 628, 632. (San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela.)
Habitat.—Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest (0–600 m; Tropical Zone).
Distribution.–Tacarcuna region (Darién), Panama, south to northern Colombia including the Magdalena Valley and northwestern Venezuela (east to at least Aragua).
Notes.—Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998), with S. veraepacis, treated as conspecific with S. turdina (Wied) [Brown-winged Schiffornis] of northern South America, but here considered specifically distinct based on differences in vocalizations and genetics (Nyári 2007, Donegan et al. 2011).
pp. 423–426. Phylogenetic analyses of syringeal characters (Prum 1992) and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Rêgo et al. 2007, Tello et al. 2009, McKay et al. 2010) have shown that the current generic limits and linear sequence of species within the family Pipridae do not accurately reflect their evolutionary relationships.
Following the species account for Chiroxiphia linearis, insert the following heading and Notes:
Genus XENOPIPO Cabanis Xenopipo Cabanis, 1847, Archiv. f. Naturg. 13 (1):235. Type, by original designation, Xenopipo atronitens Cabanis.
Notes.—Phylogenetic analyses of syringeal characters (Prum 1992) and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Rêgo et al. 2007, Tello et al. 2009, McKay et al. 2010) indicate that Xenopipo and Chloropipo form a clade and that Chloropipo may be paraphyletic with respect to Xenopipo (Prum 1992). These genera are merged pending further data, following Remsen et al. (2013).
Remove the heading Genus CHLOROPIPO Cabanis and Heine, move the citation for Chloropipo from p. 423 into the synonymy of Xenopipo, change Chloropipo holochlora Sclater to Xenopipo holochlora (Sclater), place the account for this species under the heading for Xenopipo, and replace the existing Notes with: Formerly placed in the genus Chloropipo. See comments under Xenopipo.
Following the species account for Xenopipo holochlora, insert the following heading and Notes:
Genus DIXIPHIA Reichenbach Dixiphia Reichenbach, 1850, Av. Syst. Nat, pl. 63. Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1855), Pipra leucocilla Linnaeus = Pipra pipra Linnaeus.
Notes.—Phylogenetic analyses of syringeal characters (Prum 1992) and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Rêgo et al. 2007, Tello et al. 2009, McKay et al. 2010) indicate that the species formerly placed in Pipra (AOU 1983, 1998) constitute multiple independent lineages.
Remove the heading Genus PIPRA Linnaeus and the citation and notes under this heading, change Pipra pipra (Linnaeus) to Dixiphia pipra (Linnaeus), place the account for this species under the heading for Dixiphia, delete the first sentence of the existing Notes, make the appropriate changes in generic names or abbreviations within the existing Notes, and insert the following at the end of the existing Notes: Formerly placed in the genus Pipra. See comments under Dixiphia.
Following the species account for Dixiphia pipra, insert the following heading and Notes:
Genus CERATOPIPRA Bonaparte
Ceratopipra Bonaparte, 1854, Ateneo Italiano 2 (11):316. Type, by monotypy, Pipra cornuta Spix.
Notes.—See comments under Dixiphia.
Change Pipra mentalis Sclater to Ceratopipra mentalis (Sclater) and change Pipra erythrocephala (Linnaeus) to Ceratopipra erythrocephala (Linnaeus), place the accounts for these species under the heading for Ceratopipra, make the appropriate changes in generic names or abbreviations within the existing Notes, and insert the following at the end of the existing Notes for each species: Formerly placed in the genus Pipra. See comments under Dixiphia.
Under the heading Family PIPRIDAE: Manakins on p. 423, insert the following Notes:
Rearrange the sequence of genera and species in the Pipridae as follows:
Genus Corapipo Bonaparte
Genus Chiroxiphia Cabanis
Genus Xenopipo Cabanis
Genus Dixiphia Reichenbach
Genus Ceratopipra Bonaparte
Genus Manacus Brisson
Genus Lepidothrix Bonaparte
p. 480. The extralimital species Troglodytes cobbiis treated as separate from T. aedon, following Woods (1993) and Remsen et al. (2013). Remove mention of the Falkland Islands from the distributional statement for T. aedon and add the following to the end of the existing Notes for this species: Formerly included extralimital species T. cobbi Chubb, 1909 [Cobb's Wren], which is separated on the basis of morphological, ecological, genetic, and vocal differences (Woods 1993, Campagna et al. 2012).
p. 515. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Lovette and Rubinstein 2007, Lovette et al. 2012) have shown that the current linear sequence of genera and species in the family Mimidae does not accurately reflect their evolutionary relationships.
Under the heading Family MIMIDAE: Mockingbirds and Thrashers, add the following to the end of the existing Notes: Linear sequence of genera and species follows Lovette et al. (2012).
Rearrange the sequence of genera and species in the Mimidae as follows:
Genus Melanotis Bonaparte
Genus Melanoptila Sclater
Genus Dumetella Wood
Genus Ramphocinclus Lafresnaye
Genus Allenia Cory
Genus Margarops Sclater
Genus Cinclocerthia Gray
Genus Toxostoma Wagler
Genus Oreoscoptes Baird
Genus Mimus Boie
p. 530–531. Replace Genus
PTILOGONYS Swainson with Genus PTILIOGONYS Swainson, remove “[sic]” from the citation, and replace the existing Notes with the following:
Notes.—AOU (1998) considered Ptilogonys a justifiable emendation of Ptiliogonys, but it is an incorrect subsequent spelling and has no nomenclatural standing (Kashin 1978, Browning 1989, Gregory and Dickinson 2012).
Change Ptilogonys cinereus Swainson to Ptiliogonys cinereus Swainson and remove “[sic]” from the citation for this species. Change Ptilogonys caudatus Cabanis to Ptiliogonys caudatus Cabanis. On p. 530, change Family PTILOGONATIDAE: Silky-flycatchers to Family PTILIOGONATIDAE: Silky-flycatchers and insert the following at the beginning of the existing Notes: Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) known as Ptilogonatidae, but family name corrected in keeping with correction of the genus name Ptiliogonys. See comments under Ptiliogonys.
p. 570. Change Chlorospingus ophthalmicus (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1847) to Chlorospingus flavopectus (Lafresnaye, 1840), and change the citation for the species to:
Arremon flavo-pectus Lafresnaye, 1840, Rev. Zool. [Paris], Aug., p. 227. (Santa-Fé de Bogota, Colombia.)
Change ophthalmicus to flavopectus in the existing Distribution and Notes of the species account, and insert the following at the end of the existing Notes: Formerly Chlorospingus ophthalmicus (Du Bus de Gisignies), but the name C. flavopectus has priority (contra Zimmer 1947).
p. 614. Artemisiospiza nevadensis is treated as a species separate from A. belli. Remove the current account for A. belli and insert the following new species accounts:
Artemisiospiza nevadensis (Ridgway). Sagebrush Sparrow.
Poospiza belli var.? nevadensis Ridgway, 1873, Bull. Essex Inst., 5, no. 11, Nov., p. 191. (Entire area of the Middle Province of the U.S. = West Humboldt Mts., Nevada.) Habitat.—Sagebrush and salt-bush (Atriplex) desert scrub; in migration and winter also in arid plains with sparse bushes, grasslands, and open situations with scattered brush.
Distribution.—Breeds primarily in Great Basin from central interior Washington, eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, southwestern Wyoming, and northwestern Colorado south to eastern California (south to the Owens Valley), southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, northeastern Arizona, and northwestern New Mexico. One breeding record for eastern Montana.
Winters from southeastern California, central Nevada, southwestern Utah, northern Arizona, and central New Mexico south to central Baja California, northern Sonora, northern Chihuahua, and western Texas.
Casual in the Pacific coastal region from southwestern British Columbia southward, and to western Montana, eastern Wyoming, southwestern South Dakota, eastern Colorado, western Kansas, and western Oklahoma; a sight report for Nebraska.
Records of accidentals identified as Sage Sparrow A. belli [sensu lato] from Nova Scotia (13 November 1994, photo; Forsythe 1995) and Kentucky (18 April 2006, photo; Hulsey 2008) probably pertain to A. nevadensis based on geographic likelihood.
Notes.—Formerly considered conspecific with A. belli, but treated as a separate species on the basis of differences in mitochondrial DNA, morphology, and ecology, and limited gene flow at the contact zone in eastern California (Cicero and Johnson 2007, Cicero and Koo 2012). See comments under Artemisiospiza.
Artemisiospiza belli (Cassin). Bell's Sparrow.
Emberiza Belli Cassin, 1850, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 5:104, pl. 4. (California near Sonoma.)
Habitat.— Chaparral (dominated by Adenostoma fasciculatum or Artemisia californica) and salt-bush desert scrub.
Distribution.—Resident in western California (from Trinity County south, including San Clemente Island) to central Baja California; and also in San Joaquin Valley and Mojave Desert areas of east-central California. The latter populations (A. b. canescens) undergo post-breeding, up-slope migrations into coastal and Sierran foothills (Johnson and Marten 1992).
Winters throughout the breeding range, in the Salton Sea region, and in western Arizona (Phillips et al. 1964).
Notes.—Populations of A. b. canescens of the San Joaquin Valley and Mojave Desert differ in morphology and ecology from belli and may represent a distinct species. Analyses of mtDNA indicate that Mojave Desert populations of canescens are distinctive, whereas canescens from the San Joaquin Valley share haplotypes with coastal belli (Cicero and Koo 2012). See comments under A. nevadensis and Artemisiospiza.
p. 659. Before the account for Leucosticte tephrocotis, insert the following new species account:
Leucostictearctoa (Pallas). Asian Rosy-Finch.
Passer arctous Pallas, 1811, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. 2:21. (ad Jeniseam [= Yenisei River] et in orientali Sibiria [= Russian Altai].)
Habitat.—Breeds mostly on tundra or on mountains above timberline on rocky terrain. Winters in barren and rocky fields with scattered vegetation and snow-free beaches and headlands; also open woodland.
Distribution.—Breeds in mountainous southern Siberia and adjacent Mongolia in the Altai and Sayan ranges east in the southern Russian Far East to Koryakland, Kamchatka, and the northern Kuril Islands; possibly breeds in the mountains of Hokkaido. Most largely resident within the breeding range, with seasonal elevational movements. The eastern birds are migratory, however, wintering south to Ussuriland, Manchuria, Sakhalin, and Honshu; irregularly or casually to Kyushu, Tsushima, Izu Islands, and Hachijojima Island.
Accidental in Alaska (one bird of the brunneonucha (Brandt, 1842) [Japanese Rosy-Finch] group, 30 December 2011, Adak Island, Aleutian Islands, photo; Dunn et al. 2012).
p. 660. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences (Smith et al. 2013) have shown that the current linear sequence of species in the genus Haemorhous does not accurately reflect their evolutionary relationships.
Under the heading Genus HAEMORHOUS Swainson, add the following to the end of the existing Notes: Linear sequence of species follows Smith et al. (2013).
Rearrange the sequence of species of Haemorhous as follows:
Haemorhous mexicanus (Müller) Haemorhous purpureus (Gmelin) Haemorhous cassinii (Baird)
p. 671. Delete the heading Subfamily DREPANIDINAE: Hawaiian Honeycreepers and the Notes that follow this heading and move the included genera and species to a position in the Carduelinae following Pyrrhula pyrrhula. Change the heading Subfamily CARDUELINAE: Cardueline Finches to Subfamily CARDUELINAE: Cardueline Finches and Hawaiian Honeycreepers. Under this new heading, insert the following:
Notes.—Analyses of morphology (James 2004) and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences (Lerner et al. 2011, Zuccon et al. 2012) indicate that the Hawaiian honeycreepers, previously (e.g., AOU 1998) considered to constitute a separate subfamily (Drepanidinae), are nested within the Carduelinae.
p. 676. Change Oreomystis mana (Wilson) to Loxops mana (Wilson), move the account for this species to precede the species account for Loxops caeruleirostris, and add the following to the end of the account:
Notes.—Formerly (AOU 1998) placed in the genus Oreomystis, but analyses of osteological and mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data (James and Olson 1991, Fleischer et al. 1998, James 2004, Reding et al. 2009, Lerner et al. 2011) indicate that it is only distantly related to type species O. bairdi and is better placed in Loxops. Sometimes placed in the monotypic genus Manucerthia Pratt.
Following the citation for Loxops, insert the following:
Manucerthia Pratt, 2009, ‘Elepaio 69:49. Type, by original designation, Himatione mana Wilson.
Delete the existing Notes for the genus Oreomystis.
p. 686. Delete the account for Pterodroma solandri from the Appendix.
p. 686–687. Delete the account for Pterodroma feae from the Appendix. p. 693. Delete the account for Nandayus nenday from the Appendix.
pp. 705 ff. Make the following changes to the list of French names of North American birds:
Insert the following names in the proper position as indicated by the text of this supplement:
Rearrange the sequence of families from BURHINIDAE to ALCIDAE as indicated by the text of this supplement.
Rearrange the sequence of genera and species in PIPRIDAE, MIMIDAE and FRINGILLIDAE as indicated by the text of this supplement.
Rearrange the species sequence in Calidris and Haemorhous as indicated by the text of this supplement.
Correct Threnetes ruckeri from Ermite de Rücker to Ermite de Rucker.
Delete the following names from APPENDIX (Part 1):
Proposals considered but not accepted by the committee included recognition of Thalasseus acuflavidus (Cabot's Tern) as a species distinct from T. sandvicensis (Sandwich Tern), Glaucidium cobanense (Guatemalan Pygmy-Owl) as a species distinct from G. gnoma (Northern Pygmy-Owl), Melanerpes santacruzi (Velasquez's Woodpecker) as a species distinct from M. aurifrons (Golden-fronted Woodpecker), and Myiarchus flavidior (Ridgway's Flycatcher) as a species distinct from M. nuttingi (Nutting's Flycatcher); division of Branta canadensis (Canada Goose) and Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch) into two or more species; and merger of all North American species of rosy-finch (Leucosticte spp.) into American Rosy-Finch (L. tephrocotis). A proposal to replace the genus name Nyctanassa with the prior name Nyctherodius was rejected in favor of petitioning the ICZN to continue to use the more recent name.
Normand David serves as the committee's advisor for classical languages in relation to scientific names, and Michel Gosselin is the authority for French names. We thank S. M. Billerman, G. A. Bravo, M. R. Browning, T. Donegan, E. C. Dickinson, K. Eisermann, K. L. Garrett, D. D. Gibson, S. N. G. Howell, M. Iliff, M. L. Isler, H. F. James, R. Massman, J. Morlan, and N. Pieplow for assistance, suggestions, and comments.