Open Access
Translator Disclaimer
1 December 2015 First Record of Cydia tonosticha (Meyrick) (Tortricidae) from Chile and a New Host Plant
Dante Bobadilla
Author Affiliations +

Cydia Hübner, 1825 is a cosmopolitan and highly diverse genus of Tortricidae (Gilligan et al. 2014) that is currently represented in Chile by two species (Vargas & Parra 2006, Razowski & Pelz 2010): C. pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758) and C. largo Heppner, 1981. Cydia pomonella, commonly known as the codling moth, is a widely distributed pest of apple, pear, and walnut (Gilligan & Epstein 2012); in Chile it is a primary pest of apple (Razowski & Pelz 2010). Cydia largo, whose larvae are associated with Fabaceae, was described from southern Florida and was also recorded from Cuba (Heppner 1981); later it was reported from the coastal valleys of the Atacama Desert of Chile (Vargas & Parra 2006), where its larvae are florivorous on Acacia macracantha (Fabaceae) (Vargas & Parra 2006, 2009).

As part of a survey of Lepidoptera associated with native plants in the coastal valleys of the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, some seed-feeding larvae were detected in pods of Prosopis alba (Fabaceae) in October 2014 in the Lluta Valley, Arica Province. Infested pods were collected and brought to the laboratory in plastic vials and were kept at room temperature to obtain adults. Five adults were reared, and they were identified as Cydia tonosticha (Meyrick, 1922) based on morphology of the male and female genitalia (Lima 1952, Heppner et al. 2009, Razowski 2011) (Fig. 1–3).

Cydia tonosticha was described from Amazonas, Brazil, and apparently it is widely distributed in the Neotropics; it has been reported from Panama, Peru, and Venezuela (Heppner et al. 2009, Razowski 2011). Its synonym (Laspeyresia cassiana Lima, 1952) also has a Brazilian type locality in Rio de Janeiro State. Larvae of C. tonosticha have been recorded as seed-feeders in pods of four species of Fabaceae belonging to the genera Cassia and Stryphnodendron, based on sampling performed in Brazil and Panama (Lima 1952, Becker 1971, Nomura et al. 1976, Penteado-Dias et al. 2008, Razowski 2011). In the collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA (USNM), there are specimens of C. tonosticha reared from Acacia farnesiana (Panama), Cassia fistula (Brazil), Cassia moschata (Panama), Cassia grandis (Panama), Senna bacillaris (Brazil), and Senna rugosa (Brazil). Surprisingly, Punica granatum (Punicaceae) was recently recorded as a host for C. tonosticha in Peru (Heppner et al. 2009). In addition, the wasp Pseudophanerotoma (Pseudophanerotoma) alvarengai Zettel, 1990 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae) was recorded parasitizing larvae of C. tonosticha in Brazil (Penteado-Dias et al. 2008).

This is the first record of C. tonosticha from Chile, adding one more country to the distribution range of this widespread Neotropical species. The southern limit previously reported in Peru is in Omate, Departamento de Moquegua, about 200 km north of the Lluta Valley (Heppner et al. 2009). It remains unknown whether the presence of C. tonosticha in Chile is a result of a recent range expansion or the species is native to the coastal valleys of the Atacama Desert. Although the original description of C. tonosticha was based on Brazilian specimens, its wide distribution raises the question about its evolutionary origin, as the type locality does not necessarily represent the geographic origin of the species (Gonçalves et al. 2015); molecular studies at the population level are required in order to explore this scenario (Valade et al. 2009).

This is the first record of a species of Prosopis as a host plant for larvae of C. tonosticha, adding one more genus to the family most commonly recorded for this species (Lima 1952, Becker 1971, Penteado-Dias et al. 2008, Razowski 2011). Apparently, Fabaceae is an important host plant family for Tortricidae in northern Chile (Clarke 1987, Vargas & Parra 2006, Vargas 2011).

Finally, the discovery of C. tonosticha in northern Chile, together with other recent additions to the Chilean Tortricidae (Vargas & Parra 2006, Vargas 2011, 2012, Vargas et al. 2015), highlight the importance of surveys to understand the diversity of this family throughout these arid landscapes.

Fig. 1–3.

Cydia tonosticha (Meyrick, 1922). 1. Female adult in dorsal view; scale bar = 1 mm. 2. Male genitalia in ventral view; scale bar = 0.1 mm. 3. Female genitalia in ventral view; scale bar = 0.1 mm.


Material examined. Chile, Arica. Three males, two females: Lluta, Arica, Chile, November 2014, D. Bobadilla coll., seed-feeder larvae in pods of Prosopis alba, October 2014 (IDEA). Vouchers will be deposited in the Colección Entomológica de la Universidad de Tarapacá (IDEA), Arica, Chile.


The authors thank John W. Brown (USNM) for important comments and suggestions on a preliminary version and for kindly provide the data on host plants of C. tonosticha in USNM; Clorinda Vergara-Cobian (UNALM) for sending literature; Patricia Jiménez Guarda (SAG) for encouragement to publish this record; Ricardo Mendoza Mamani (UTA) for field assistance; Marcelo Vargas-Ortiz (UTA) for editing the figures; and Lafayette Eaton for checking the English. This study was supported by project DGI 9710-14, Dirección General de Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá.

Literature Cited


V. O. Becker 1971. Microlepidópteros que vivem nas plantas cultivadas no Brasil. II. O nome correto da lagarta das favas da Cassia fistula L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Bol. Univ. Fed. Paraná Zool. 4: 45–46. Google Scholar


J.F.G. Clarke 1987. Two new Cryptophlebia Walsingham from Chile (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Acta Entomol. Chilena 14: 7–12. Google Scholar


T. M. Gilligan & M. E. Epstein . 2012. TortAI, Tortricids of Agricultural Importance to the United States (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Identification Technology Program (ITP), USDA/APHIS/PPQ/CPHST, Fort Collins, CO. (Accessed 23 January 2015) Google Scholar


G. L. Gonçalves , G. R. P. Moreira , R. Brito & H. A. Vargas . 2015. Stranger in a known land: Bayesian analysis confirms the presence of an Australian leaf miner in the Chilean Atacama Desert. Bioinvasions Rec. 4: 67–73. Google Scholar


J. B. Heppner 1981. A new Cydia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from Florida and Cuba. J. Lepid. Soc. 35: 278–280. Google Scholar


J. B. Heppner , C. E. Vergara-Cobian & M. Narrea-Congo . 2009. Cydia tonosticha in Peru (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Lepid. Novae 2: 45–47. Google Scholar


H. Nomura , A. B. Gusman , D. L. Corrêa & L. Nemoto . 1976. Desenvolvimento de Laspeyresia sp. (Lepidoptera, Grapholitidae), nova praga de sementes do barbatimão, Stryphnodendron barbadetimann (Velloso) (Leguminosae, Mimoideae). Científica 4: 6–13. Google Scholar


A. M. Penteado-Dias , A. R. Nascimento & M. M. Dias . 2008. The description of the male and the first host data of Pseudophanerotoma (Pseudophanerotoma) alvarengai Zettel, 1990 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae). Zool. Med. Leiden 82: 401–405. Google Scholar


J. Razowski 2011. New species, new genera, and new combinations of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from the Neotropical Region. Acta Zool. Cracov. 53A: 37–101. Google Scholar


J. Razowski & V. Pelz . 2010. Tortricidae from Chile (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). SHILAP Revta. Lepid. 38: 5–55. Google Scholar


R. Valade , M. Kenis , A. Hernandez-Lopez , S. Augustin , N. Mari Mena , E. Magnoux , R. Rougerie , F. Lakatos , A. Roques & C. Lopez-Vaamonde . 2009. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers reveal a Balkan origin for the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae). Mol. Ecol. 18: 3458–3470. Google Scholar


H. A. Vargas 2011. A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Rev. Bras. Entomol. 55: 216–218. Google Scholar


H. A. Vargas 2012. Strepsicrates smithianaWalsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae): first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Rev. Bras. Entomol. 56: 381–382. Google Scholar


H. A. Vargas & L. E. Parra . 2006. Nuevos registros de distribución y notas biológicas de Cydia largo Heppner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Gayana 70: 293–294. Google Scholar


H. A. Vargas & L. E. Parra . 2009. Prospección de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae) en el norte de Chile. Rev. Bras. Entomol. 53: 291–293. Google Scholar


H. A. Vargas , P. Pollo , D. S. Basilio , G. L. Gonçalves & G. R. P. Moreira . 2015. A new cecidogenous species of Eugnosta Hübner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae) in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert: life-history description and phylogenetic inferences. Zootaxa 3920: 265–280. Google Scholar
Dante Bobadilla "First Record of Cydia tonosticha (Meyrick) (Tortricidae) from Chile and a New Host Plant," The Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 69(4), 331-333, (1 December 2015).
Received: 31 March 2015; Accepted: 22 April 2015; Published: 1 December 2015

Cydia largo
Prosopis alba
Get copyright permission
Back to Top