A revised lichen checklist for Egypt, the first to be published since 1901, is presented. It is based on a detailed literature survey supported by a limited study of herbarium material. The list includes 163 taxa of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi, six of which are newly recorded for the country. Synonymic interpretation, a short historical background and a comprehensive bibliography are also provided. The total lichen flora of Egypt is estimated to comprise no more than 250 species with a remarkably poor representation of many common groups, such as Parmeliaceae.