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1 July 2005 Temporal Pattern of Vocal Activity of the Water Rail Rallus aquaticus and the Little Crake Porzana parva in the Breeding Season
Marcin Polak
Author Affiliations +

In the Water Rail the patterns of the two main types of vocalization were quite different: the announcement call was uttered throughout the breeding season with two peaks, one in April and the other in early June, but the courtship call occurred only in the pre-laying period. The vocalization period of the Little Crake is short but intensive, peaking before the start of incubation. In general, Water Rails produced more vocalizations in the evening than in the morning. The vocal activity of the Little Crake peaked at dawn. In both species a peak in vocal output occurred shortly before sunrise and before sunset.



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Marcin Polak "Temporal Pattern of Vocal Activity of the Water Rail Rallus aquaticus and the Little Crake Porzana parva in the Breeding Season," Acta Ornithologica 40(1), 21-26, (1 July 2005).
Received: 1 October 2004; Accepted: 1 March 2005; Published: 1 July 2005
Little Crake
Porzana parva
Rallus aquaticus
vocal activity
Water Rail
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