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The tree fern genus Cibotium comprises nine species distributed in tropical regions of Asia, Mesoamerica, and the Hawaiian Islands. The four Hawaiian species are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The goals of this paper were to determine the relationships among the Cibotium species, determine whether the Hawaiian species are monophyletic, and infer the dispersal pathway likely responsible for delivering an ancestral Cibotium species to the Hawaiian Islands. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on four coding and five non-coding plastid DNA sequences supported Hawaiian Cibotium as monophyletic, suggesting a single colonization of the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Cibotium are most closely related to species in Mesoamerica. If the ancestor of Hawaiian Cibotium dispersed to the Hawaiian Islands via wind dispersed spores, our analyses suggest the trade winds or storms delivered spores from Mesoamerica or the Hawaiian Islands were colonized first by a species from Asia, followed by subsequent dispersal to Mesoamerica from Hawai'i. Our analyses do not allow us to favor one hypothesis over the other.
Gametophyte morphology and development of three species of Cyrtogonellum Ching (Dryopteridaceae) were described with the aim to increase our knowledge on the gametophytic stage of this fern genus especially the occurrence of sexual structures. Spore germination followed the Vittaria-type development, whereas prothallus growth followed the Aspidium-type development. Unicellular glandular hairs were located on both margins and surface of the prothalli. The heart-shaped prothalli of C. caducum showed irregularly lobed margins with multicellular filamentous to wing-like extensions. One to several agamously formed embryos were found on a single mature gametophyte of C. inaequale but only one of these developed into a mature sporophyte. Young sporophytes possessed scales with one to several glandular cells. Antheridia were found in all three species, but archegonia were observed only on mature prothalli of C. fraxinellum, which were always located near the midrib of the cordate-thalloid prothallus. The rarity of archegonia and lack of evidence for the functionality of archegonia in these species raised questions about sexual reproduction in Cyrtogonellum.
Morphological variation of three Kaua'i species of Asplenium in the Diellia alliance is evaluated based on recent field observations and herbarium specimens. Their taxonomy, nomenclature, and synonymy are discussed, and a lectotype is selected for Lindsaya knudsenii. Asplenium diellaciniatum is interpreted as having extremely variable frond morphology and dissection, whereas A. dielmannii and A. dielpallidum are morphologically much more uniform. Their conservation status and population sizes are reviewed.
A new hybrid Serpocaulon × sessilipinnum A. Rojas & J.M. Chaves is described. The new taxon has characters intermediate between S. fraxinifolium (Jacq.) A.R. Sm. and S. ptilorhizon (Christ) A.R. Sm., which are related mainly with leaf size, rhizome scales, shape and division of blade, shape and width of pinnae, number of areolae and sori series, and shape and color of spores.