Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches.
Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content.
Contact firstname.lastname@example.org with any questions.
Clubmosses (Lycopodiaceae) represent the closest living counterparts to early vascular plants, but inability to culture terrestrial taxa has made much of the clade inaccessible to ex-situ conservation, experimental research, and horticulture. In an attempt to identify conditions conducive to repeatable ex vitro culture, the utility of clayey and sandy loams amended with pumice as a medium was observed for 20 terrestrial species spanning all three subfamilies of Lycopodiaceae. Using this media class, a series of effective sporophyte cultivation and propagation techniques were developed for all 9 North American genera. Strategies are described for selection of appropriate propagules, establishment, propagation, and long-term maintenance for each genus. Sporophytes of all taxa established readily in oligotrophic, largely inorganic media under high humidity. Large clonal colonies were maintained with frequent application of weak fertilizer solution under bright light, high humidity, and year-round moderate temperatures in two greenhouses, a growth chamber, and laboratory.
Most studies on ferns focus on the adult sporophytes, overlooking the gametophyte as a potential source of biological information. Herein, field-collected gametophytes and young sporophytes of Elaphoglossum decursivum are described with the aims of providing a more complete understanding on the morphology of this species and additional morphological characteristics for its sectional classification. Gametophytes share the general morphology of most other Elaphoglossum species, but one unusual observation was the presence of minute scales (proscales) on the thallus. Young leaves differ from the glabrous adult leaves by having papillate glandular hairs. These are the first observations of hairs in the glabrous sect. Elaphoglossum. Our study shows that the gametophytes and young sporophytes of E. decursivum have indument characters that are not present in the adult sporophytes, and studying these life stages could potentially be useful in a phylogenetic context.
Azolla is a floating fern, which contains the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae in the dorsal lobe cavity of the leaves. This study investigated the effects of seasonal changes on the pigment composition of Azolla filiculoides in a small pond located in Istanbul, Turkey. Sampling was conducted in March, April, May, October, November, December 2007. The average total chlorophyll and carotenoid content of the leaves was almost a half fold lower in March-April-May than in October-November-December. For late winter–spring, while the average chlorophyll a/b ratio of the leaves was 2.6, for autumn - early winter it was 5.5. In March, leaf dimensions reduced, whereas the anthocyanin accumulation in the leaves increased. In May, together with the increasing temperature values, while the leaf dimensions and biomass increased, the leaves returned to green. From October to November, both leaf dimensions and amount of anthocyanin in the leaves reduced. Results showed that the probable growth season of the A. filiculoides began between April and May.
We examined the extent and type of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) fungal associations in three lycophyte and 44 fern species collected from three different sites in the Kolli Hills, Eastern Ghats, southern India. Of the 47 plant taxa (belonging to 21 families and 33 genera) examined, 46 had AM fungal and 33 had DSE fungal associations. But, fungal structures were absent in the aquatic fern Azolla pinnata (Azollaceae). This is the first report of AM and DSE fungal status for 16 and 28 species, respectively. Among terrestrial lycophytes and ferns, 26 species had dual association of both AM and DSE fungi, whereas 11 species had only AM fungal association. Vittaria elongata from epiphytic habitats had dual association of AM and DSE fungi. Likewise, Cheilanthes tenuifolia (saxicolous or terrestrial), Cheilanthes opposita, Lepisorus nudus, Pyrrosia lanceolata (terrestrial or epiphytic), and Asplenium lanceolatum (saxicolous or epiphytic) examined from different sites or habitats also had dual association of AM and DSE fungi. Seventy two percent of the mycorrhizal lycophytes and ferns had intermediate-type AM and 15 percent had both Paris- and intermediate-types at different sites. Significant variations in AM fungal structures were evident in 16 ferns occurring in two or more sites. Nine AM fungal spore morphotypes belonging to Acaulospora, Funneliformis, Glomus, Gigaspora, and Sclerocystis were found to be associated with lycophytes and ferns.