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On the basis of recent fieldwork, six new species of Cyathea from northern Peru are described: Cyathea carolinae, C. cisandina, C. grata, C. oscarorum, C. phoenix, and C. novoi. All were found on sandstone subtrates under different precipitation regimes. Here, we illustrate these species, discuss their natural history, compare them to their putative close relatives, and discuss the implications of their discovery for the floristics of South American tree ferns.
We describe Pleopeltis constricta Sprunt & Hickey as a new species from El Salvador and Mexico and additionally provide eight new fern records for the State of Veracruz. Furthermore, we propose one new combination each in Pecluma (P. liebmannii (C. Chr.) A. R. Sm. & Carv.-Hern.) and Pleopeltis (P. acicularis (Weath.) A. R. Sm. & T. Krömer). These novelties bring the new total for Veracruz to 574 species.
Seven new species and one new variety of Hypolepis are presented, bringing the total recognized for the genus in the Neotropics to about 50 species (and a total of 60 taxa). The new taxa include H. barringtonii (endemic to Florida, U.S.A.), H. cubensis (endemic to Cuba), H. feeana (from Colombia, Venezuela, and the Antilles), H. zimmerae (from Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru), H. sunduei (endemic to Peru), H. forzzae (endemic to Amazonas, in the border of Brazil and Venezuela), H. miodelii (endemic to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and H. rigescens var. paranaensis (endemic to Paraná, Brazil). All new taxa are described, illustrated, and discussed. Treatments of H. flexuosa and H. stuebelii are provided because the description of H. zimmerae and H. feeana alters their circumscription, respectively. It is also suggested that H. repens does not occur in Florida, Cuba, nor Jamaica.
The present investigation presents a clear differentiation between the articulated and non-articulated stem of Selaginella, based on morphological and anatomical characteristics. We also take the first step in developing a clear definition of the articulated stem in Selaginella. Further, in Selaginella anaclasta previously described as having articulate stems, we found no micro-morphological or structural evidence of articulations, and we describe this species as one with non-articulated stems. In support of our findings, we present micromorphological and structural descriptions of three species S. anaclasta, S. exaltata, and S. parviarticulata, which differentiate the various stem constructions in Selaginella.