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A list of 59 newly recorded Pteridophytes from the Bukit Baka- Bukit Raya National Park in Central Kalimantan is presented. Nine species are recorded for Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan) for the first time: Diplazium polycarpum, Pronephrium peltatum var. persetiferum, Pteris asperula, Selliguea enervis, Sphaerostephanos latebrosus, Sphaerostephanos reconditus, Syngramma quinata, Tectaria tricuspis, and Trichomanes humile. Previously, Sphaerostephanos reconditus, and Tectaria palmata var. dimorpha were only known from their type localities.
This paper records the occurrence of a polyphagous beetle, Schenklingia bhaumiki (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), feeding on ten fern species growing in the Lower Gangetic Plains of West Bengal, India viz., Christella dentata, Ampelopteris prolifera, Cyclosorus sp., Pteris vittata, Nephrolepis cordifolia, N. exaltata, Adiantum philippense, Drynaria propinqua, Pyrrosia adnascens and Phymatosorus scolopendria for the first time. The adult beetles are leaf surface scraper and skeletonize the lamina. The larvae are leaf miners and produce linear–blotch mines between the epidermal layers with continuous spiral black frass. Young leaves of all ten species of ferns are significantly less damaged than mature ones indicating that both the adults and the larvae attack leaves of all ages. Herbivore damage of the beetle infested ferns ranged from 1.94% to 25.47% and 2.68% to 54.86% for scraping feeding and mining feeding respectively. Among the host ferns, the members of Thelypteridaceae viz., Christella (Scraping feeding 25.47%; mining feeding 54.86%), Ampelopteris (Scraping feeding 24.10%; mining feeding 53.60%) and Cyclosorus (Scraping feeding 16.06%, mining feeding 27.12%) suffered maximum herbivore damage. Interspecific variation of plant size and biogeographic range of the fern species are not related to herbivore damage. Insects may perhaps attack fewer ferns than angiosperms, but there is no evidence that ferns are generally less damaged than angiosperms.
Few plant species have demonstrated the ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals from contaminated soil. Recently, Pteris vittata L. has been identified as a hyperaccumulator of arsenic. Because gametophytic development is an essential stage in the fern life cycle, impacts of heavy metal hyperaccumulation on gametophytic and sporophytic tissue must be investigated if successional bioremediation efforts are to be implemented successfully. Our research showed that sporophytes as well as gametophytes of P. vittata are capable of As uptake and accumulation. Increased As (≤2500 ppm) did not inhibit spore germination, and deleterious effects on gametophyte morphology were observed only after extended time periods on media with extremely high As concentrations (≥600 ppm). Six other Pteris species varied in ability to germinate on As-containing media. Sporophytes of P. vittata showed no adverse effects when exposed to the highest soil As levels (1650 ppm); in fact, root proliferation was observed in areas of increased As concentration (250 ppm). Foliar application of an arsenical herbicide (calcium acid methanearsonate) to sporophytes resulted in decreased chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations. Phosphate additions inhibited As uptake by sporophytes, indicating As uptake involves the phosphate transport system.