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An illustrated redescription of the monotypic African whip scorpion, Etienneus africanus (Hentschel, 1899), is provided based on examination of material newly collected in Guinea-Bissau and Senegal, as well as material from the Gambia, Guinea and Senegal studied by previous workers. The species is reported for the first time from Guinea-Bissau. Several character systems are documented in this species for the first time, new characters that appear to be autapomorphic are described, and notes on its natural history provided. The phylogenetic position of E. africanus is discussed, supporting the opinion that it is a Gondwana relict, most closely related to the Neotropical hypoctonine genera, ThelyphonellusPocock, 1894 and RavilopsViquez and Armas, 2005.