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An updated checklist of liverworts (Marchantiophyta) and hornworts (Anthocerotophyta) of Thailand is presented. The checklist is based on published literature and some recent collections. The liverwort and hornwort flora of Thailand consists of 386 species belonging to 90 genera in 37 families. The largest family is Lejeuneaceae (123 spp., 25 genera). The genera with over ten species are Cololejeunea (38 spp.), Plagiochila (37 spp.), Frullania (37 spp.), Bazzania (34 spp.), and Radula (21 spp.). Sixteen species are known only from Thailand, but no genera are endemic to the country. A new name (Cololejeunea gradsteinii M.J. Lai & R.L. Zhu, nom. nov.) and a new combination (Heteroscyphus inflatus (Steph.) S.C. Srivast. & A. Srivast. var. fragilissimus (N. Kitag.) M.J. Lai & R.L. Zhu, comb, nova) are proposed. Eleven species are reported for Thailand for the first time. Vegetation and bryofloristic accounts of Thailand are also discussed.
Mire surface levels reflecting the water table depth are known to be an important vegetation gradient in boreal peatlands. We classified the vegetation by TWINSPAN, interpreted the vegetation gradients by ordination (Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling) and analysed the peat thickness for the TWINSPAN communities and species (Indicator Species Analysis) from small-sized sample plots over extremely thin-peated to medium thick-peated, minerotrophic mire expanse vegetation from an aapa-mire complex Hirvisuo, Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. The TWINSPAN communities and the ordination-result could be interpreted in relation to the mire surface levels and additionally in relation to the stability of the water regime on the basis of water level measurements made from the same habitat types in an earlier research. Peat thickness correlated with the stability of the water regime so that communities with an unstable water regime on sand were thin-peated (0–30 cm), while communities with a stable water regime were more thick-peated. We conclude here that the mire-ecological water-table gradient was dissected into two vegetation gradients in Hirvisuo: the gradient formed by mire surface levels reflecting the mean water table level and the stability of the water regime, which represents a gradient of local importance over boreal Fennoscandia. Peat procuding ability of the bottom layer in mires seems to be much dependent on it.
Encroaching urbanisation changed Iidesjärvi from being a lake largely in a rural area surrounded by cultivated fields, pastures and meadows at the beginning of the 20th century to its present-day urban land setting. The lake has been damaged by pollution, road construction, dumping of toxic waste, introduced species and building of new settlements. To assess the impact of these temporal changes in the aquatic plant biodiversity of Iidesjärvi this study analysed macrophyte survey data collected during the course of the 20th century. The study indicated that despite of the environmental changes the total number of aquatic macrophytes remained relatively stable, but the species composition has changed considerably reflecting the changes in land use, water quality and the invasion of alien species. Some previously dominant species have disappeared with eutrophication affecting particularly elodeids and ceratophyllids. Some species have returned to the lake after a long absence. Similar lakes in the region form a dynamic system where the exchange of species from one to another may be possible. The semi-isolated lagoons may also help to re-establish aquatic macrophyte species in the main basin of Iidesjärvi, if the water quality improves in the future.
Eurya phaeosticta C.X. Ye & X.G. Shi sp. nova (Theaceae) from Yunnan Province, China, is described and illustrated. It is morphologically most similar to E. megatrichocarpa, from which it differs by having 4–5 locellate anthers, smaller fruits ca. 3 mm in diam., four distinct styles, and glabrous bracteoles and sepals.
We describe six new species of Taraxacum from the Nordic countries, in sect. Borea T. rhusiolepium and T. scalare, and in sect. Ruderalia T. carptum, T. erici, T. laudabile, and T. spissum. We include a comparison of respective morphologically related species, and a survey of their known distribution.
Salix anatolica J. Zieliński & D. Tomaszewski sp. nova (Salicaceae) from central Turkey is described and illustrated. It is compared with the two morphologically closest species, S. pedicellata and S. pseudomedemii.
Limonium gueneri Dogan, Duman & Akaydın sp. nova (Plumbaginaceae) is described and illustrated from Patara (C2 Antalya, Turkey), where it grows on calcareous slopes on the coast. It is probably closely related to L. ocymifolium (Poir.) Kuntze, an East Mediterranean species. The diagnostic morphological characters are discussed. A taxonomic key for the coastline species of Turkish Limonium without sterile branches is also presented along with some notes on the ecology and biogeography of the new species.
A new combination, Cephalostachyum pingbianense (Hsueh & Y.M. Yang ex Yi et al.) D.Z. Li & H.Q. Yang, is proposed according to current generic concepts in the subtribe Melocanninae (Poaceae), based on the basionym Schizostachyum pingbianense Hsueh & Y. M. Yang ex Yi et al.
Heliotropium samoliflorum was formerly regarded as an endemic species of Iran until the collection of the species from Erzurum (Turkey). Due to the presence of clavate intercalary lobes of corolla and hairy indumentum of the nutlets, the Turkish material is described as H. samoliflorum subsp. erzurumicum Dönmez subsp. nova and illustrated. Description of H. samoliflorum is given with observed new characters. Identification key to the species of Heliotropium in Turkey is reorganised by inserting two species, based on H. samoliflorum as well as on other species recorded by previous authors.