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Sixteen species of Tremella Pers. are currently known from Finland. Fifteen of them are illustrated and described, and a key to all Finnish species is given. Tremella cetrariicola Diederich & Coppins, T. cladoniae Diederich & M.S. Christ., T. giraffa Chee J. Chen, T. globispora D.A. Reid, T. phaeophysciae Diederich & M.S. Christ., T. polyporina D.A. Reid and T. ramalinae Diederich are reported as new to Finland.
In this field study, we determined the effects of water stress, rainfed or irrigated conditions on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) root colonization in the late-seral Stipa clarazii, the earlier-seral S. tenuis and the early-seral S. gynerioides at different developmental stages and sampling dates. We had two goals: (1) to document the levels of AMF root colonization, and (2) to examine the plant stress responses during imposed water stress in the three Stipa species. We tested the hypothesis that the effects of water stress on Stipa grasslands depend upon the interactions between plant AMF status and plant species. No consistent patterns in AMF root colonization frequency were observed relative to soil water levels. This suggests that AMF root colonization is highly plastic and responds to environmental factors that we do not yet understand. Mycorrhiza colonization was greater in the late-seral than in the earlier-seral species. Higher AMF root colonization levels in S. clarazii may partly explain its higher competitive ability in comparison with the earlier-seral species.
The paper deals with 18 species of the lichen genus Cladonia, including eight species new to Bolivia: C. cf. borbonica, C. coccifera, C. confragosa, C. dactylota, C. granulosa, C. kriegeri, C. merochlorophaea, and C. squamosa. Furthermore, C. kriegeri is recorded here from its second and third localities in the world. Also five lichenicolous fungi are reported; among them Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa, Polycoccum microcarpum and Sphaerellothecium cladoniae are new to the southern hemisphere, and Roselliniella cladoniae and Tremella cladoniae are new to Bolivia. Additionally, Polycoccum microcarpum is reported for the first time from Slovakia and Ukraine. Cladonia confragosa is reported as a new host for Sphaerellothecium cladoniae and Tremella cladoniae.
Levels of allozyme variation, population genetic structure, and fine-scale genetic structure (FSGS) of the rare, endangered terrestrial orchid Pogonia minor were examined for three small and isolated populations (n = 185) in South Korea using 20 putative allozyme loci resolved from 14 enzyme systems. Of the three populations, only one was polymorphic at four loci. Thus, extremely low levels of allozyme variation within populations were found: mean percentage of polymorphic loci was 6.7%, mean number of alleles per locus was 1.07, and mean expected heterozygosity was 0.015. Polymorphic population exhibited a significant deficit of heterozygotes relative to Hardy-Weinberg expectations (FIS = 0.257), suggesting selfing (rate, s = 0.349) through autogamy and biparental inbreeding. Analysis of O-ring function revealed significant aggregation of individuals suggests restricted seed dispersal and patchy distribution of microhabitats within populations. Spatial autocorrelation analyses revealed a significant fine-scale genetic structure (up to ≤ 2 m) within a polymorphic population, and a significantly high degree of population differentiation was found among populations (FST = 0.196). These results suggest that genetic drift, coupled with inbreeding, limited gene dispersal and founder effects would be the main explanatory factors for the extremely low levels of genetic diversity and for shaping the population genetic structure of P. minor in South Korea. Considering the current genetic structure of P. minor, in situ and ex situ conservation of the known populations of the species is suggested.
Inonotus plorans, previously known only from Algeria and Morocco, is now reported from NW Iran. The known southern distribution of Inocutis rheades is extended to southern Iran, and Mensularia nodulosa is reported as new to Iran. A key to ten species of Inonotus s. lato occurring in Iran is provided. Most of the species are illustrated and their spore and setal dimensions are given. The earlier reports of I. radiatus and Mensularia hastifera from Iran turned out to be misidentifications. Keys to the accepted species of Inocutis and Mensularia are provided.
Polygonum khajeh-jamali Khosravi & Poormahdi sp. nova (Polygonaceae) is described and illustrated from SW Iran. It can be assigned to Spinescentia group of sect. Polygonum and is characterized by its coriaceous leaves. The leaf epidermis contains a layer of tanniniferous cells with thick walls absent in the other closely similar species.
Rohdea lihengiana Q. Qiao & C.Q. Zhang (Ruscaceae s. lato), a new species from Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. It is similar to R. fimbriata in the irregularly dentate or fimbriate margin of the bracts and lobes, but differs from it by having sessile leaves, a shorter style, only one fertile bract per flower, and two inflorescences annually.