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The bioclimatic belts of Gomera are established and the potential distribution of its climatophilous vegetation series mapped accordingly. PCA and DCA analyses explain the significance of thermic factors related to altitude, and rainfall or humidity conditions (mist precipitation) in the distribution of bioclimatic belts and vegetation series. A map of potential natural vegetation is produced by considering several additional abiotic environmental factors, and the current distribution of potential vegetation remnants or their substitute communities. Three new climatophilous associations (Neochamaeleo pulverulentae—Euphorbietum balsamiferae, Violo rivinianae—Myricetum fayae, Cisto gomerae—Pinetum canariensis), one new climatophilous subassociation (Brachypodio arbusculae—Juniperetum canariensis subass. ericetosum arboreae), two potential edaphophilous new associations (Euphorbietum aphyllae, Euphorbio berthelotii-Retamatetum rhodorhizoidis), one new potential edaphophilous subassociation (Cisto gomerae—Pinetum canariensis subass. juniperetosum canariensis) and two serial new associations (Micromerio gomerensis—Cistetum monspeliensis, Adenocarpo foliolosi-Chamaecytisetum angustifolii) are described. Commentaries and phytosociological tables of the potential natural vegetation communities and the other communities described are given.
The vegetation history of the Aği Daği region in the Ida Massif (NW Turkey) was reconstructed on the basis of pollen analysis of a topogenic peat bog. The analysis provided evidence of human impact on the woodland environment in Byzantine times and the centuries that followed. The bog was probably formed as a result of extremely wet conditions due to excessive forest degradation. It appears that the initial chestnut—oak forest, after a period of intensive clearings, recovered at first artificially and then naturally. A sequence of events: deforestation-afforestation continues to the present day. Chestnut woodland displayed an optimal development between the 11th and 14th centuries due to human influence. However, due to negligence and destruction, the gradual destruction of the initial chestnut-oak forest at the mountain vegetation level resulted in the extension of black pine forests at this level, leading to acidification of the soil and disappearance of the ephemeral flora of the original leafy forest. Consequently, biological diversity declined and the forest ecosystem became more fragile. The chronology for the last 1250 years has been established on the basis of a 14C dated pollen profile from the lowest peat layer.
The patterns of genetic diversity in 14 Cypripedium calceolus populations were investigated in two distant regions, located inside its continuous range (Biebrza valley, NE Poland) and close to the periphery of its range (Alps, SE France). The genetic variation at the species level was found to be relatively high (P% = 37.5%, Ho = 0.145) as compared with that observed in other endangered or rare species. The mean genetic diversity for both European regions did not differ significantly, except for P% (42.5% for Biebrza valley, 34.1% for Alps, p < 0.001). The Biebrza valley yielded almost twice as many genotypes, but genotypic diversity (as measured by G/N and Ĝ/N) was higher in populations from the Alps. This could mean that asexual reproduction is more intense in populations in the Biebrza valley than in the Alps. The results from PCA, UPGMA and AMOVA analyses showed clear genetic differences in C. calceolus between the two European regions. The Mantel test showed positive and significant associations between genetic and geographic distances among populations situated in the Biebrza valley (r2 = 0.37, p < 0.05), but not among the Alpine populations (r2 = -0.25, p > 0.05). Our data showed that substantial loss of genetic diversity in C. calceolus most likely occurs rather at the population than at the species level.
The hybrid between the aquatic plants Sagittaria natans, of boreal Eurasia, and S. sagittifolia, of temperate Europe and W Asia, is widespread in the area of N Europe (Sweden, Finland, Russia) where the ranges of the two species overlap. The hybrid, which is variously intermediate between its parents, is described as S. × lunata C.D. Preston & Uotila. Its known distribution is mapped and its habitat, reproduction and dispersal are summarised. In Norden (= Fennoscandia and Denmark) it occurs in many watercourses in the absence of one or both parents, suggesting that it has a relict distribution, and it extends further north than S. sagittifolia and further north and south than S. natans. In the Finnish provinces at the northern end of the Gulf of Bothnia there is a hybrid complex which includes plants which approach S. sagittifolia, but only a single specimen of typical S. sagittifolia is known from these regions. S. sagittifolia forma xanthandra Holmberg, described from Sweden, appears to have been a non-persistent variant of S. sagittifolia with yellow anthers rather than a hybrid with S. natans. — Flora Nordica Notes 34.
Rhododendron yunyianum X.F. Jin & B.Y. Ding (Ericaceae), sp. nova of subgen. Tsutsusi is described and illustrated from Fujian, China. It is morphologically similar to R. taipaoense and R. simsii, but differs from them mainly in having young shoots with both setose and strigose hairs, conspicuous calyx lobes, narrowly funnelform corollas, and 7–10 stamens.
Oxytropis sorkhehensis Ranjbar sp. nova (Fabaceae) is described from Iran and illustrated. Diagnostic characters, a description and taxonomic comments on the species are given. It is compared with a morphologically similar species, O. thaumasiomorpha. Oxytropis pilosa is a new record from this group for Iran.
Cirsium handaniae Yıldız, Dirmenci & Arabacı (Asteraceae) is described as a new species from northeastern Anatolia, Turkey. It belongs to the section Epitrachys and appears to be close to C. macrobotrys and C. lappaceum s. lato. Diagnostic characters, as well as a full description and figures are provided. Its morphological characters are discussed and compared with the related species.