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Natural populations of hybrids and populations of parental species of the Carex flava aggregate, growing in seven localities in Poland, were studied. Statistical methods were used to analyse 30 morphological characters measured from 399 dried specimens. The results allowed us to recognize the following hybrids : C. × alsatica [C. flava × C. demissa], C. × ruedtii [C. flava × C. lepidocarpa], C. × schatzii [C. lepidocarpa × C. viridula] and C. demissa × C. viridula. We found that (i) the utricle and beak lengths in the hybrid are usually similar to those of the parents that have longer utricles and beaks, and that (ii) introgression typically occurs towards the parental taxon dominant in an area and that with an earlier flowering period. The morphological characters most useful in distinguishing between hybrids and their parental species in the C. flava aggregate are the size of the utricle and the beak as well as characters transgressive in the hybrids, associated with inflorescence length, location of female spikes, and length of male utricles and their peduncles.
We studied the effects of cattle grazing on bryophyte species richness in Finnish seminatural grasslands and examined if there are differences among bryophyte life-strategies in relation to grazing pressure. We recorded species richness and cover of bryophytes in 420 sample plots located in 21 grasslands. Percentage of bare ground, height of vascular plant vegetation and cover of vascular plant litter were used as proxies for grazing intensity. We also explored the microhabitat preferences of individual species. Species richness of all bryophytes, perennial residents and colonists increased with grazing pressure. As compared with perennials, many species among the colonists had strong affinity to sites with high proportion of bare ground. We conclude that both perennial and colonist bryophytes benefit from grazing in semi-natural grasslands, although the effects of grazing are differently realized in the different bryophyte groups.
Aristolochia adalica Tosunoglu & Malyer sp. nova (Aristolochiaceae) is described and illustrated from southwest Anatolia, Turkey. It is morphologically close to the East Aegean endemic A. hirta; however, these species differ in some important characteristics, such as the perianth and leaf shapes and sizes, indumentum of the limb, and seed and pollen morphology. The taxonomic relationships are discussed.
Phellinidium (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) is characterized by a monomitic hyphal system, presence of hyphoid setae, and thin-walled, hyaline and acyanophilous basidiospores. The genus is polyphyletic and has at least three independent lineages. Phellinidium asiaticum Spirin, L.W. Zhou & Y.C. Dai is described as a new species based on four specimens from northeast China and the Russian Far East. In the nLSU-based phylogeny, P. asiaticum is nested within the clade including P. ferrugineofuscum (the generic type), and it is closely related to P. fragrans and P. pouzarii, known from North America and Europe, respectively. The morphological differences between P. asiaticum and P. fragrans, as well as P. pouzarii, are discussed.
Lectotypes for the Linnaean names Phillyrea angustifolia, P. media and Fraxinus ornus (Oleaceae), are designated from original material conserved in LINN (Linnaean Herbarium) and BM (George Clifford Herbarium). A specimen at BM is designated here as the second-step lectotype of the name Fraxinus ornus.
The ephemeral, leafless orchids Didymoplexiella siamensis and Gastrodia peichatieniana are newly recorded from Hong Kong. A lectotype is selected for the former, and the recently described D. denticulata from southern Vietnam is reduced to its synonymy. Full descriptions and global conservation assessments are presented for these hitherto poorly known species.
Didymodon baii D.P. Zhao, J.N. Wang & X.D. Zhao (Pottiaceae) is described and illustrated as a new moss species from Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. It differs from congenerics by its oblong-lanceolate leaves gradually narrowed to the apex, with plane margins throughout, and costa long-excurrent as a flexuose subula, the transverse section of the costa having 4–5 guide cells in one layer and ventral stereids absent to weakly differentiated in one layer. Its relationships with some closely similar Didymodon species are discussed.
Two new species of calicioid fungi are described, Phaeocalicium triseptatum Tibell and Sphinctrina intermedia Tibell. While P. triseptatum is only known from Hokkaido, Japan, S. intermedia is known from Hokkaido and Korea. Sphinctrina leucopoda as reported from Korea in the literature is misidentified S. intermedia. The genus Microcalicium is reported as new to Japan with one species, M. arenarium. Phaeocalicium flabelliforme is reported as new to Asia (Japan). Chaenothecopsis savonica is reported as new to Japan and Sphinctrina tubaeformis as new to Hokkaido.
Centaurea alfonsoi Negaresh sp. nova (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated from Kermanshah Province, W Iran. It resembles C. regia subsp. regia, but differs from it by having densely tomentose phyllaries, with small appendages, triangular median appendages, shorter cilia and spine, and white flowers.