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The biogeography and phylogeny of Cardamine L. were inferred based on sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS regions and the plastid trnL intron and trnL-F spacer regions. This genus is one of the largest and polyploid-rich genera of the Brassicaceae and has its center of diversity in Eurasia. Species were included from all populated continents, representing all sections except two monotypic ones. The results support a hypothesis of recent and rapid speciation in the genus. The traditional sectional classification was not supported. We found evidence for several extremely long-distance dispersal events. Colonization of the Southern Hemisphere and the Arctic has occurred repeatedly; we identified at least three phylogenetically distinct Arctic lineages, two distinct Oceanian lineages, and four distinct South American lineages. Polyploidization has occurred independently many times during the evolution of Cardamine. Recent divergence combined with widespread polyploidization offer an explanation for the complex taxonomy of the genus.
Over 19 species and numerous infraspecific taxa have been described in the Syringa pubescens Turcz. complex (Oleaceae), and the taxonomy of this complex has been controversial. To provide a rational taxonomic revision of the complex, field observations were undertaken across China and 14 populations were sampled. The principal coordinate and principal components analyses and general statistical analysis evaluate the significance of characters for taxonomy. As a result, one species is recognized, with three subspecies: Syringa pubescens subsp. pubescens Turcz., subspecies microphylla (Diels) M. C. Chang & X. L. Chen, and subspecies patula (Palib.) M. C. Chang & X. L. Chen. Syringa meyeri C. K. Schneid. is treated as a new synonym of S. pubescens subsp. pubescens, and S. julianae C. K. Schneid. and S. meyeri var. spontanea M. C. Chang as new synonyms of S. pubescens subsp. microphylla. Lectotypes for S. microphylla Diels, S. dielsiana C. K. Schneid., and S. venosa Nakai are designated here.
Eight of the 81 recognized species in Echeandia Ortega (Anthericaceae) occur in South America. Four species occur in Venezuela and/or Colombia, one in Ecuador, and three in Peru. The five species in subgenus Echeandia are endemic to South America, as is one of the three species in subgenus Mscavea Cruden. The other two species in subgenus Mscavea occur in both South and Central America. As many as five of the eight species are narrow endemics and four may be quite rare. A comparison of the isotypes of E. ciliata (Kunth) Cruden with material from Colombia, Venezuela, and Peru provided evidence that the type gathering was made in Cajamarca, Peru, rather than Caracas, Venezuela, as indicated in Kunth's 1815 protologue. Echeandia denticulata Cruden is proposed as a new species to accommodate material from Colombia and Venezuela, which was heretofore included in E. ciliata. Two new combinations, E. herrerae (Killip) Cruden and E. weberbaueri (Poelln.) Cruden, are made, and Anthericum glareosum Ravenna ( = E. ciliata) and E. aequatoris Ravenna ( = E. lehmannii (Baker) Marais & Reilly) are newly synonymized. A neotype for E. leucantha Klotzsch and a lectotype for E. ciliata are designated. Anthericum peruvianum Willd. ex Kunth is an illegitimate name.
Urera Gaudich. is unique among Mesoamerican Urticaceae in having bright, fleshy fruits. Within Mesoamerica, there is significant confusion over the application of many names, especially U. corallina (Liebm.) Wedd., U. elata (Sw.) Griseb., and U. eggersii Hieron. Three new species, U. fenestrata A. K. Monro & Al. Rodr. (Costa Rica and Panama), U. guanacastensis A. K. Monro & Al. Rodr. (Costa Rica), and U. lianoides A. K. Monro & Al. Rodr. (Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Peru, and Bolivia), are described and illustrated on the basis of staminate flowers, staminate inflorescences, stem, leaf morphology, and habit. The affinities of the new species are discussed. The first record of ant associations for the genus is documented in relation to U. fenestrata. In addition, a key is presented to the 10 species of Urera recognized for Mesoamerica; nomenclatural review is given in which U. mitis (Vell.) Miq. is lectotypified; U. baccifera (L.) Gaudich. ex Wedd., U. caracasana (Jacq.) Griseb., U. mitis, and Urtica nitida Vell. are epitypified; and Urera denticulata Miq., U. eggersii, U. subpeltata Miq., and U. subpeltata var. morifolia Miq. are neotypified; and a list is provided of more than 900 exsiccatae from 13 herbaria.
Distictella Kuntze is a genus of 18 species in the tribe Bignonieae. The species are lianas or less frequently shrubs, and can be recognized by their terete branchlets without interpetiolar glandular fields; usually bifoliolate or less frequently unifoliolate or trifoliolate leaves, often with a trifid terminal tendril; terminal or less frequently lateral inflorescences; usually glandular, campanulate, ± truncate calyces; tubular-infundibular or tubular-campanulate, strongly curved corollas that are white or less frequently purple, often with a yellow throat, pubescent externally and usually internally; ovaries and styles sericeous and poorly demarcated; woody capsules that are non-echinate, and often with both valves convex (slightly compressed) or one convex and one concave and the fruits curving; and bialate seeds (wings sometimes greatly reduced), brown to black, irregularly ridged, and glabrous. Relationships with similar genera are discussed, and a key to the species of Distictella, species descriptions, and species distribution maps are provided. The relationships of the species are also discussed, and a new species, D. lohmanniae A. Pool, and new variety, D. racemosa (Bureau & K. Schum.) Urb. var. translucida A. Pool, are proposed. Bignonia rusbyi Britton ex Rusby, Distictis angustifolia K. Schum. ex Sprague, Distictella lutescens C. V. Freire & A. Samp., and Distictella negrensis C. V. Freire & A. Samp. are presented as new synonyms of Distictella racemosa var. racemosa. Distictella broadwayana Urb. is presented as a new synonym of Distictella racemosa var. translucida, and a lectotype is designated for Distictis racemosa Bureau & K. Schum.
A systematic revision of Gnidia L. is presented based on an analysis of morphological data. The circumscription of the genus adopted here includes Lasiosiphon Fresen. and excludes Atemnosiphon Leandri and Dais L. Six new combinations are made for species previously recognized as Lasiosiphon: G. ambondrombensis (Boiteau) Z. S. Rogers, G. hibbertioides (S. Moore) Z. S. Rogers, G. humbertii (Leandri) Z. S. Rogers, G. linearis (Leandri) Z. S. Rogers, G. occidentalis (Leandri) Z. S. Rogers, and G. perrieri (Leandri) Z. S. Rogers. Two names, G. daphnifolia L. f. and G. linearis, are resurrected from synonymy with L. madagascariensis (Lam.) Decne. and L. decaryi Leandri, respectively, and now pertain to more broadly circumscribed species. One new species, G. neglecta Z. S. Rogers, is described. These changes result in the recognition of 14 species, all endemic, making Gnidia the largest genus of Malagasy Thymelaeaceae. Lectotypifications are provided for 15 names: Dais gnidioides Baker, G. danguyana Leandri, L. bojerianus Decne., L. decaryi, L. decaryi var. erectus Leandri, L. decaryi var. littoralis Leandri, L. decaryi var. tenerifolia Leandri, L. dumetorum Leandri, L. hildebrandtii Scott-Elliot, L. humbertii Leandri, L. madagascariensis var. angustifolius Leandri, L. madagascariensis var. mandrarensis Leandri, L. occidentalis Leandri, L. perrieri Leandri, and L. pubescens (Lam.) Decne. var. multifolius Leandri. Each species is illustrated, mapped, and assigned a preliminary IUCN conservation status.