Translator Disclaimer
6 March 2020 Distribution of the genus Larinia in the Maghreb, with the first record of Larinia chloris in Algeria (Araneae: Araneidae)
Author Affiliations +

Data on the spider fauna of the Maghreb are incomplete and the available information concerns only some parts of this region. In the present contribution, new distribution data on the genus Larinia Simon, 1874 in the Maghreb are given, including the first record of Larinia chloris (Audouin, 1826) in Algeria from two wetlands in the northern Sahara. Photos of male palps and female epigynes as well as maps of the known and new records of Larinia chloris and L. lineata (Lucas, 1846) are presented.

The family Araneidae currently comprises 177 genera, and the genus Larinia contains 58 species (World Spider Catalog 2019). Thirteen species have been recorded from Africa, but only two of them occur in the Palaearctic part: L. chloris and L. lineata. The male of L. chloris was described as Epeira chloris by Audouin (1826), in a paper on the spiders of Egypt and Syria. The juvenile female was described much later as Larinia flavescens by Simon (1882), in a paper on the spiders of Yemen. The synonymy of the two was discovered by Grasshoff (1970) in an important paper on the classification of the family Araneidae, in which the genus Larinia was also well presented. It is important to mention a great similarity of L. chloris to L. phtisica (L. Koch, 1871), as discussed by Grasshoff (1970, 1973) and Framenau & Scharff (2008), which led to questions about the status of these species. The female of L. lineata was described for the first time by Lucas (1846) as Epeira lineata from Sétif in his work on the spiders of Algeria. Later, the male was described by Simon (1895).

In the Maghreb, the genus Larinia is known only from two species: L. lineata, recorded in Algeria (Lucas 1846, Simon 1899, 1929, Grasshoff 1970), Morocco (Simon 1909, 1929, Jocqué 1977) and Tunisia (Pavesi 1880) and L. chloris from Libya (Simon 1908, Caporiacco 1936). The aim of this study is to present new localities for the species belonging to the genus Larinia in the studied region.

Material and methods

Study area

The study area comprises the whole of the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya) and the region of Ghardaïa (Algeria) in particular. This Saharan region is characterized by a hot, arid climate with a mild winter. As an example, the annual recorded precipitations and mean temperatures during 2017 were 33.79 mm, 22.5 °C for Ghardaïa and 65.28 mm, 22.8 °C for El Menia (Algeria).

Due to the aridity and the scarcity of precipitation in this region, two wetlands are of note: Kef Doukhane, located at 600 km to the south of the capital Algiers, at 390 to 430 m a.s.l. It is a channel in a riverbed of about 22 km length, supplied by treated wastewater from the treatment plant of El Atteuf. It passes different rocky and sandy structures and is characterized by vegetation on the banks, hosting several species of birds, reptiles and other animals (Fig. 1). The other is Sebkhet El Melah Lake, located in the centre of Algeria (30.4166°–30.5333°N and 2.9000°–2.9333°E). This Ramsar wetland (Fig. 2) was described by Alioua et al. (2016).


CRB: Collection Robert Bosmans

CYA: Collection Youcef Alioua

MNHN: National Museum of Natural History, Paris

Sampling. Material was collected in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia from 1984 to 2018. Between 2016 and 2018, individuals of L. chloris were collected by the first author directly from vegetation around the fresh water basin of Sebkhet El Melah and the Wadi Kef Doukhane. The specimens were preserved in 70% ethanol. A stereomicroscope (Nikon SMA 1270) was used for specimens' examination and a Moticam camera mounted on a Realux microscope and Olympus SZX7 stereomicroscope to take photographs of the spiders. The individuals of L. lineata were collected by the second author directly or with a sweep net, between 1984 and 1990 in Algeria, during 1999 in Morocco and in 1985 and 2003 in Tunisia.

Determination. L. chloris and L. lineata were determined according to the paper of Grasshoff (1970).


Larinia Simon, 1874
Type species: Epeira lineata Lucas, 1846
Larinia chloris (Audouin, 1826) (Figs 3-8, 10)

  • Taxonomic references are cited in World Spider Catalog (2019).

  • Previous records in the Maghreb. LIBYA: Al Kufrah: El Giof (Caporiacco 1936); Tripoli: Ain Zara (Simon 1908).

  • New records. ALGERIA: Ghardaïa: El Menia: Sebkhat El Melah Lake (30.5357°N, 2.9174°E), 373 m a.s.l., 1 ♀, low vegetation 25 m from water, 25. Feb. 2016, Sebkhat El Melah Lake (30.5109°N, 2.9269°E), 370 m a.s.l. 1 ♀, 20 m from water, 25. Feb. 2017; Kef Doukhane River (32.4193°N, 3.8841°E), 410 m a.s.l, 8 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, on vegetation near the river, 14. Oct. 2017, 5 ♀♀, same habitat, 21. Oct. 2017, 4 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀, same habitat, 20. Nov. 2018 (CRB, CYA).

  • Distribution. Southern and Eastern Mediterranean, sub-Saharan Africa, south of the Arabian Peninsula and Indian subcontinent (World Spider Catalog 2019).

  • Fig. 1-2.

    Larina chloris sampling areas: 1. Kef Doukhane River; 2. Sebkhet El Melah Lake


    Larinia lineata (Lucas, 1846) (Figs 9, 11)

  • Taxonomic references are cited in the World Spider Catalog (2019).

  • Previous records in the Maghreb. ALGERIA: Alger: Basse Mitidja (Simon 1899). Sétif: Sétif (type locality; Lucas, 1846).

  • Without precise locality (Simon 1929). Without precise locality (Grasshoff 1970).

  • MOROCCO: Without precise locality (Simon 1929). Essaouira: Essaouira (as Mogador; Simon 1909). Rabat-Salé-Kénitra: Kénitra (Jocqué 1977).

  • TUNISIA: Medjerda River (as Magerdah; Pavesi 1880).

  • New records. ALGERIA: Alger: Bab Ezzouar University Campus (36.7106°N, 3.17841°E), 14 m a.s.l., 1 ♀, among stones, 1. Dec. 1986, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB). Bejaia: Tichy (36.6667°N, 5.1667°E), 5 m a.s.l., 1 ♂, on herbs in dunes, 21. May 1988, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB). Biskra: Baniane (34.9833°N, 6.0499°E), Gorges de l'Oued El Abiodh, 350 m a.s.l., 1 ♂, on herbs along the river, 3. Nov. 1987, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB). El Bayad: Les Arbaouats (33.0883°N, 0.5781°E), 900 m a.s.l., 1 ♂, on Phragmites around a small pool, 20. Jan. 1988, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB). Guelma: Hammam Meskoutine (36.4599°N, 7.2708°E), 410 m a.s.l., 1 ♀, on grasses, 28. Feb. 1990, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB). M'sila: Bou Saada (35.2142°N, 4.1825°E), 560 m a.s.l., 1 ♂, in irrigated garden of hotel, 21. May 1987, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB). Saida: Merdja Maison Forestière (36.1333°N, 3.3167°E), 750 m a.s.l., 1 ♀, on herbs along small rivulet in mixed Fraxinus, Platanus and Populus forest, 4. May 1984, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB). Tlemcen: Col d'Hafir, Oued Tafna (35.2972°N, 1.4683°W), 900 m a.s.l., 1 ♀, sweeping in irrigated orchard, 5. May 1984, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB).

  • MOROCCO: Marrakech-Safi: Chichaoua (31.5272°N, 8.7628°W), 371 m a.s.l., 1 ♀, 8. Jul. 1999, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB).

  • TUNISIA: Beja: Oued Zerga (36.6833°N, 9.4166°E), 300 m a.s.l., 1 ♂, on herbs in Olea orchard, 12. Sep. 1985, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB). Kairouan: Haffouz E. (35.6667°N, 9.6667°E), 387 m a.s.l., 1 ♀, 27. Jan. 2003, R. Bosmans leg. (CRB).

  • Distribution. Western Mediterranean (Morocco to Tunisia, Portugal, Spain, France) (World Spider Catalog 2019). In the Maghreb, the species appears to be common in the northern parts.

  • Fig. 3-5.

    Larinia chloris from Ghardaïa (Algeria): 3. Male, dorsal view; 4. Female, dorsal view; 5. Idem, ventral view. Scale line = 2 mm


    Distinguishing both species

    Males can be readily recognised by the structure of their palpal organs. In Larinia chloris, the median apophysis ends in two short, pointed processes (Figs 7, 8), which are much longer in L. lineata (Fig. 9). Females of Larinia chloris are distinguished from L. lineata by the epigyne being 1.5 times as wide as long in Larinia chloris (Fig. 10), and as wide as long in L. lineata (Fig. 11). The epigynal scape is often broken off, as in Fig. 10, which does not facilitate identification. Characters useful for separating the two species occurring in the Maghreb are adequately described by Grasshoff (1973), Tikader (1982), Levy (1986) and Kunt et al. (2012).

    Fig. 6-9.

    Male palps of Larinia species. 6-8. Larinia chloris from Ghardaïa (Algeria): 6. retrolateral view; 7. ventral view; 8. prolateral view; 9. Larinia lineata from France (Gaymard & Lecigne 2018, Oger 2019), prolateral view. Arrows show the differences in the median apophyses between males of both species. Scale line = 0.5 mm


    Fig. 10-11.

    Ventral views of epigynes. 10. Larinia chloris, from Ghardaïa; 11. Larinia lineata, from France (scape broken off) (Gaymard & Lecigne 2018, Oger 2019). Scale line = 0.2 mm


    Fig. 12.

    Map of known and new records of Larinia chloris (Circles: previous records, after Cambridge 1876, Pavesi 1895, Simon 1904, 1906, 1908, Caporiacco 1936, Denis 1947, Grasshoff 1970, Tikader 1982, Levy 1986, Dippenaar-Schoeman et al. 2005, Gajbe 2007, Foord et al. 2011, Kunt et al. 2012, Biswas & Raychaudhuri 2012, Dippenaar-Schoeman et al. 2018, Soliman et al. 2018, Bosmans et al. 2019; square: type locality, after Audouin 1826; hexagon: disputable occurrence, after Simon 1882 and Grasshoff 1970; triangles: new records)



    Larinia chloris was captured on low vegetation in Sebkhet El Melah and on leaves of Nicotiana glauca Graham, 1826 in Kef Doukhane. It is very rare at the first locality but common on vegetation along the river at the second one. According to Levy (1986), the species is found at humid sites in Israel. Kunt et al. (2012) collected it at a similar locality near the Firat River (Turkey), and Denis (1947) around the Shiata Lake (Libya). Our observations are in accordance with these previously published data, since both our localities are humid. Apparently, L. chloris prefers humid and hot areas with dense vegetation providing web support. The new record in Algeria is the most western point of L. chloris' known distribution (Fig. 12).

    Larinia lineata, on the other hand, was captured at several localities in the more northern parts of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia (Fig. 13), from the coast to the steppe region. It prefers various habitats in small wetlands along rivulets, springs and even irrigated gardens.

    Fig. 13.

    Map of known and new records of Larinia lineata in the Maghreb (circles: previous records, after Pavesi 1880, Simon 1899, 1909, 1929, Grasshoff 1970, Jocqué 1977; square: type locality, after Lucas 1846; triangles: new records)



    We would like to thank Pierre Oger for his help in photographing specimens. We also express our thanks to Prof. Johan Mertens and Dr. Lynda Beladjal (University of Ghent) for their excellent technical assistance.



    Alioua Y, Bissati S, Kherbouche O & Bosmans R 2016 Spiders of Sebkhet El Melah (Northern Sahara, Algeria): review and new records. – Serket 15: 33–40 Google Scholar


    Audouin V 1826 Explication sommaire des planches d'Arachnides de l'Égypte et de la Syrie, publiées par Jules-César Savigny, Membre de l'Institut; offrant un exposé des caractères naturelles des genres, avec la distinction des espèces. In: Savigny JC, Description de l'Egypte, ou recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont été faites en Égypte pendant l'Expédition de l'armée française, publié par les ordres de sa majesté l'empereur Napoléon le Grand. Histoire Naturelle, Paris. pp. 99–186 Google Scholar


    Barrientos JA, Morano HE & Ferrández MÁ 1983 La colección de araneidos del Departamento de Zoología de la Universidad de Salamanca, IV: familias Argiopidae, Tetragnathidae, Zodariidae, y Urocteidae. – Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 7: 283–295 Google Scholar


    Biswas V & Raychaudhuri D 2012 Orb-weaving spiders of Bangladesh – II: genus Larinia Simon (Araneae: Araneidae) with description of a new species. – Records of the Zoological Survey of India 112(3): 53–59 Google Scholar


    Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Hadjiconstantis M, Komnenov M, Bosselaers J, Huber S, McCowan D, Snazell R, Decae A, Zoumides C, Kielhorn K-H & Oger P 2019 Spiders of Cyprus (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from Cyprus. – Newsletter of the Belgian arachnological Society 34 (Supplement): 1–173 Google Scholar


    Caporiacco L di 1936 Aracnidi raccolti durante la primavera 1933 nelle oasi del deserto libico. – Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana 15: 93–122 Google Scholar


    Denis J 1947 Results of the Armstrong College expedition to Siwa Oasis (Libyan desert), 1935. Spiders [Araneae]. – Bulletin de la Société Fouad 1er d'entomologie 31: 17–103 Google Scholar


    Dippenaar-Schoeman AS, Walt AE van der, Jager M de, Roux E le & Berg A van den 2005 The spiders of the Swartberg Nature Reserve in South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae). – Koedoe 48: 77–86 – Google Scholar


    Dippenaar-Schoeman AS, Haddad CR, Lyle R, Lotz LN, Foord SH, Jocqué R & Webb P 2018 South African National Survey of Arachnida: A checklist of the spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) of the Tswalu Kalahari Reserve in the Northern Cape province, South Africa. – Koedoe 60(a1486): 1–11 – Google Scholar


    Foord SF, Dippenaar-Schoeman AS, Haddad CR, Lotz LN & Lyle R 2011 The faunistic diversity of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of the Savanna Biome in South Africa. – Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 66: 170–201 – Google Scholar


    Framenau VW & Scharff N 2008 The orb-weaving spider genus Larinia in Australia (Araneae: Araneidae). – Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny 66: 227–250 Google Scholar


    Gajbe UA 2007 Araneae: Arachnida. In: Kailash C (eds.) Fauna of Madhya Pradesh (including Chhattisgarh). State Fauna Series. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata 15(1): 419–540 Google Scholar


    Gaymard M & Lecigne S 2018 Contribution à la connaissance de l'aranéofaune (Araneae) du Gard et en particulier du massif des Gorges du Gardon (Occitanie, France). – Bulletin de l'Association Française d'Arachnologie 1: 1–39 Google Scholar


    Grasshoff M 1970 Die Tribus Mangorini. I. Die Gattungen Eu-stala, Larinia s. str., Larinopa n. gen. (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneidae-Araneinae). – Senckenbergiana Biologica 51: 209–234 Google Scholar


    Grasshoff M 1973 Konstruktions- und Funktionsanalyse an Kopulationsorganen einiger Radnetzspinnen. – Aufsätze und Reden der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 24: 129–151 Google Scholar


    Jocqué R 1977 Sur une collection estivale d'araignées du Maroc. – Bulletin & Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 113: 321–337 Google Scholar


    Kunt KB, Kaya RS, Özkütük RS, Danişman T, Yağmur EA & Elverici M 2012 Additional notes on the spider fauna of Turkey (Araneae). – Turkish Journal of Zoology 36: 637–651 – Google Scholar


    Levy G 1986 Spiders of the genera Siwa, Larinia, Lipocrea and Drexelia (Araneae: Araneidae) from Israel. – Bulletin of the British arachnological Society 7: 1–10 Google Scholar


    Lucas H 1846 Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. In: Exploration scientifique de l'Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du Gouvernement et avec le concours d'une commission académique. Sciences physiques, Zoologie, Paris. pp. 89–271 – Google Scholar


    Oger P 2019 Les araignées de Belgique et de France. Larinia lineata. – Internet: (5. Jul. 2019) Google Scholar


    Pavesi P 1880 Studi sugli Aracnidi africani. I. Aracnidi di Tunisia. – Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 15: 283–388 Google Scholar


    Pavesi P 1895 Aracnidi. In: Fodratti V & Lecco E (eds.) Viaggio del Dr E. Festa in Palestina, nel Libano e regione vicine. – Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della Reale 10(216): 1–11 Google Scholar


    Pickard-Cambridge O 1876 Catalogue of a collection of spiders made in Egypt, with descriptions of new species and characters of a new genus. – Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 44: 541–630, pl. Google Scholar


    Simon E 1882 Étude sur les arachnides de l'Yemen méridional. In: Viaggio ad Assab nel Mar Rosso, dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Aviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880. – Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 18: 207–260 Google Scholar


    Simon E 1895 Histoire naturelle des araignées. Deuxième édition, tome premier. Roret, Paris. pp. 761–1084. – Google Scholar


    Simon E 1899 Liste des arachnides recueillis en Algérie par M. P. Lesne et description d'une espèce nouvelle. – Bulletin du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle 5: 82–87 Google Scholar


    Simon E 1904 Etude sur les arachnides recueillis au cours de la Mission Du Bourg du Bozas en Afrique. – Bulletin du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle 10: 442–448 Google Scholar


    Simon E 1906 Ergebnisse der mit Subvention aus der Erbschaft Treitl unternommenen zoologischen Forschungsreise Dr F. Werner's nach dem ägyptischen Sudan und Nord-Uganda. VII. Araneida. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Wien 115: 1159–1176 Google Scholar


    Simon E 1908 Etude sur les arachnides recueillis par M. le Dr Klaptocz en Tripolitaine. – Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 26: 419–438 Google Scholar


    Simon E 1909 Etude sur les arachnides recueillis au Maroc par M. Martinez de la Escalera en 1907. – Memorias de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural 1: 5–43 Google Scholar


    Simon E 1929 Les arachnides de France. Synopsis générale et catalogue des espèces françaises de l'ordre des Araneae. Tome VI. 3e partie. Roret, Paris. pp. 533–772 Google Scholar


    Soliman FE, Moustafa, AY, Ismail TG & El-Masry SM 2018 Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Jazirat Shandweel District, Sohag Governorate, Egypt. – Serket 16: 133–160 Google Scholar


    Tikader BK 1982 Part 1. Family Araneidae (= Argiopidae). Typical orb-weavers. In: The fauna of India. Spiders: Araneae. Vol. II. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. pp. 1–293 Google Scholar


    World Spider Catalog 2019 World spider catalog. Version 20.0. Natural History Museum, Bern. – Internet: Google Scholar
    Youcef Alioua, Robert Bosmans, Ourida Kherbouche, and Samia Bissati "Distribution of the genus Larinia in the Maghreb, with the first record of Larinia chloris in Algeria (Araneae: Araneidae)," Arachnologische Mitteilungen: Arachnology Letters 59(1), 1-4, (6 March 2020).
    Received: 11 July 2019; Accepted: 17 October 2019; Published: 6 March 2020
    4 PAGES

    Back to Top