Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches.
Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content.
Contact email@example.com with any questions.
We examined pollen of 19 genera of Hemerocallidaceae by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and one genus (Dianella) by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Pollen was generally small in size, with a rounded triangular outline when hydrated, and a characteristic three-armed aperture, a distal trichotomosulcus. The pollen surface was finely sculptured and the exine was thin. Microreticulate pollen is a potential synapomorphy for several species of the ‘crown phormioid’ subclade recognised in molecular analyses. Perforate and fossulate pollen supports a relationship between several species of Dianella. Microrugulate pollen is more frequent in the johnsonioids than in the phormioids. Hemerocallis is distinguished by elongated monosulcate pollen, a relatively thick exine with a pronounced reticulate surface, and large globules of attached pollenkitt. We hypothesise that Hemerocallidaceae are ancestrally buzz-pollinated, and their pollen morphology is an adaptation to this pollination type. A reversal to butterfly or moth pollination occurred in Hemerocallis, with associated changes in pollen morphology.
The current paper presents molecular data from three chloroplast markers (atpB–rbcL spacer, trnG G2 intron, trnL–trnF intron and spacer); morphological data, and geographic data to support the recognition of nine species belonging to Radula subg. Odontoradula in Australasia. R. ocellata, the subgeneric type from the Wet Tropics bioregion, is maintained as distinct from its sister species, R. pulchella, from south-eastern Australian rainforests; both species are Australian endemics. Reinstatement of R. allisonii from synonymy, under R. retroflexa, is supported by molecular data and morphological characters, including the absence of triradiate trigones on leaf-lobe cell walls, the apex of lobules on primary shoots not being turned outwards, the oblong-elliptic female bracts, and the perianths having a pronounced wing. Reinstatement of R. weymouthiana, from synonymy under R. retroflexa, is also supported by molecular data and morphological characters, including the presence of a single low dome-shaped papilla over each leaf-lobe cell, and the large imbricate lobules on primary shoots. R. weymouthiana occurs in Tasmania and New Zealand, whereas R. allisonii is a New Zealand endemic. Australian R. retroflexa exhibits differentiation into epiphytic and rheophytic morphs, interpreted as ecotypes. Australian individuals, comprising both epiphytic and rheophytic morphs, are monophyletic and nested within a clade containing individuals from other regions. R. novae-hollandiae is newly reported for the New Zealand Botanical Region, from Raoul Island in the Kermadecs. R. novae-hollandiae exhibits decoupling of morphological and molecular divergence, with Australian individuals forming two clades reflecting geography (a Wet Tropics bioregion clade and a south-eastern Rainforest clade). These clades exhibit equivalent levels of molecular divergence, as observed in R. pulchella and R. ocellata, but no morphological differences. Similar levels of molecular divergence were observed in trans-Tasman populations of R. tasmanica. The New Zealand endemic, R. plicata, is excluded from the Australian flora, and R. cuspidata replaces R. dentifolia for the New Zealand endemic species formerly known by both names.
Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on plastid-encoded rbcL and mitochondrial cox3 gene sequences, in combination with morphological observations, revealed the existence of the following four bistratose Padina species previously unreported from Australian coasts: Padina calcarea Ni-Ni-Win, S.G.A.Draisma, W.F.Prud’homme van Reine & H.Kawai, characterised by its bright yellow–orange inferior thallus surface and chalky white, heavily calcified superior surface, and the presence of hairlines only on the inferior surface; P. macrophylla Ni-Ni-Win, M.Uchimura & H.Kawai, characterised by a moderately calcified thallus with broad, depressed hairlines on the inferior surface and narrow, not depressed hairlines on the superior surface, those hairlines that are largely spaced on each surface; P. moffittiana I.A.Abbott & Huisman, characterised by lightly calcified thalli with narrow, slightly depressed hairlines that are distributed in alternate sequence between the two surfaces at unequal distances, and broad reproductive sori in one or two rows in the fertile zone; and P. okinawaensis Ni-Ni-Win, S.Arai, M.Uchimura & H.Kawai, characterised by heavily calcified thalli, except at the hairlines, which form an alternation of uncalcified furrows and calcified glabrous zones on the inferior surface. With the addition of these four species, 13 Padina species are known from Australia.
The phylogenetic placement of Chapsa lamellifera, C. megalophthalma and Diploschistes ocellatus was studied using a dataset of five genetic markers (mtSSU, nuLSU, RPB1, RPB2 and ITS). As extratropical species occurring in Australasia, C. lamellifera and C. megalophthalma differ from other species in that genus by having relatively large ascomata with muriform ascospores and complex chemistry of either the protocetraric or stictic acids chemosyndrome. D. ocellatus is unique within Diploschistes, in lacking lateral paraphyses and containing the norstictic acid chemosyndrome. Previous phylogenetic analysis gave inconclusive results regarding the phylogenetic position of these taxa, and hence in the present study, a larger sampling of molecular markers was employed. Our results demonstrated that the two Chapsa species and D. ocellatus are not part of their current genera. Consequently, the new genera Gintarasia Kraichak, Lücking & Lumbsch and Xalocoa Kraichak, Lücking & Lumbsch are described to accommodate these species. The new combinations Gintarasia lamellifera (Kantvilas & Vězda) Kraichak, Lücking & Lumbsch, G. lordhowensis (Mangold) Kraichak, Lücking & Lumbsch, G. megalophthalma (Müll. Arg.) Kraichak, Lücking & Lumbsch and Xalocoa ocellata (Vill.) Kraichak, Lücking & Lumbsch are also proposed.