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Crop yields are reduced by drought, diseases, and deficiencies that reduce plant height in many species. Conversely plants that are too tall may lodge to reduce harvestable yield. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for plant height (PLH), internode lengths (INL), and flower color (FLC) traits in soybean using mainly microsatellite markers and a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from ‘Essex’ and ‘Forrest’. A total of 14 QTL for the 3 traits were located on 7 different linkage groups (LG). Twelve QTL for INL were identified on LGs A2, C2, E, F, G, I, and K. LOD scores ranged from 2.53 to 4.48 and R2 from 18.4 to 33.7 %. One QTL for PLH (qPLH) was identified on LG F by the marker interval Satt554-CCA19 and has peak LOD scores of 4.63 with an R2 of 25.0%. One QTL for FLC (qFLC) was identified on LG G by the marker Satt122 and has peak LOD scores of 2.60 with an R2 of 15.5%. The QTL presented here are important to plant height manipulation during soybean breeding to produce superior high yielding cultivars and germplasm.
The literature contains conflicting reports about whether or not the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) GT1–7 neuronal cell line contains ionotropic glutamate receptors. To test for such receptors, we used domoic acid, a potent neurotoxin (and naturally produced amino acid contained in marine algae) to dose the GnRH GT1–7 hypothalamic neuronal cell line in concentrations of 5mg L−1, 10mg L−1, 20mg L−1, 100mg L−1, and 300mg L−1. In order to understand how domoic acid affects these cells, we analyzed dosed cells with light microscopy. We also analyzed selected, high dose samples with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All dosed and control samples were monitored with light microscopy continuously through the first hour after exposure. We analyzed our results with a t-test (dose effects) and two-way ANOVA (effects of dose and time). Cellular–scale differences (i.e., number of axons, number of synapses, and number of cell bodies) did not differ among doses or times (p > 0.10). TEM samples (dosed at 100mg L−1) were analyzed after 35 minutes of domoic acid exposure. TEM results demonstrate atypical nuclear shape, chromatin condensation, and chromatin margination, which are characteristics of apoptosis. Our studies demonstrate that the GT1–7 cells contain the ionotropic glutamate receptors.