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Differences among sampling techniques are of crucial importance when interpreting the results of aquatic biomonitoring studies. We compared two commonly used variations of the kick sampling technique with the Hester-Dendy (multi-plate substrate) technique in an urban impacted stream. The effect of sample pooling on data interpretation was also examined. Hand scrubbing and disrupting substrates yielded more hydropsychid caddisflies than either kick sampling or Hester-Dendy samples. Total macroinvertebrate abundance, species richness, and Shannon's diversity (H') were all lower in Hester-Dendy samples than in samples taken by kick sample or by hand scrubbing substrates. Species richness pooled within sampling technique was highest in kick samples and lowest in Hester-Dendy samples. Richness of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) pooled among sampling techniques was higher in Hester-Dendy samples than in either kick samples or substrate-scrubbed samples. Relatively subtle differences among sampling technique and data processing have the potential to influence interpretation of biomonitoring studies. In particular, differential success in sampling hydropsychid caddisflies and other EPT taxa can influence a large number of benthic indices. Finally, samples pooled and rarified can illuminate differences detectable only at higher abundance levels.
Genomic libraries constructed in the original Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) and P1 Artificial Chromosome (PAC) cloning systems were very useful for completion of the Human Genome Project. Libraries constructed in these vector systems were used to generate physical maps of all twenty three-chromosome pairs and served as the templates for DNA sequencing. The PAC vector pJCPAC-Mam2 is a 23 kilobase (kb) shuttle vector that is highly versatile and useful for functional studies in human tissue culture cell lines. pJCPAC-Mam2 contains the P1 single-copy replicon for low copy expression and a multi-copy lytic replicon under the control of the lac repressor for high copy expression in Escherichia coli, wild type and mutant loxP sites for generation of bidirectional nested deletions in any clone of interest and the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) latent replication origin oriP, the Epstein Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) gene, and a puromycin-resistance gene for propagation in mammalian cells. We constructed an arrayed 115,000-member human genomic library in pJCPAC-Mam2 that is housed in twelve hundred 96 well dishes. Subsequent pooling using a column and rows strategy reduced the library to 19 final pools for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) screening. We estimate that the average insert size is approximately 57 kb based on NotI digestion and Field Inversion Gel Electrophoresis (FIGE) analysis of 473 random PAC clones. The library appears to represent a two- to three-fold coverage of the human genome based on screening of the library with PCR primers representing nine genes. This library should serve as a valuable resource to validate potential disease genes identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in human tissue culture cell lines and in animal models. Also, individual library members could potentially be used for gene therapy trials for a variety of recessive disorders.
The National Executive committee is pleased to announce the recipients of the Beta Beta Beta Research Grants for 2011. The total amount awarded was $55,000. Grants ranged from $100 to $1,050. Below are the grant winners in alphabetical order and the schools they represent.
The following chapters have sent in officer slates for 2011-2012. Officers are listed in the order of President, Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer, Historian, and Faculty Advisor unless otherwise noted. The chapters are listed alphabetically by Greek name. Please submit new slates, changes and corrections to Lori.Kelman@montgomerycollege.edu.
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