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We describe and illustrate 19 new species of Elaphoglossum from Bolivia: E. ayopayaense, E. carrascoense, E. choquetangae, E. cotapatense, E. crispipalea, E. cruzense, E. elkeae, E. ellenbergianum, E. gonzalesiae, E. inquisitivum, E. madidiense, E. murinum, E. neei, E. palmarum, E. pannosum, E. paucinervium, E. puberulentum, E. pulchrum, and E. sunduei.
A new cycad species, Cycas annaikalensis, has been discovered from the Malabar Coast of the southern Western Ghats of India. Although geographically distributed in a small population within the range of C. circinalis, it can be distinguished from the other described Indian Cycas species by its distinct habitat, habit, morphology of vegetative and reproductive parts, and anatomy of leaflets.
The Amphiatlantic genus Machaerium consists of shrubs, trees, and lianas occurring from sea level to 500–900 m (rarely 1700 m). The genus is known from Mexico southward to Brazil and Argentina, with one species (M. isadelphum) extending to Trinidad and Tobago, and another species (M. lunatum) to the west coast of Africa. Of the estimated 130 Machaerium species, eleven species and three varieties are known from Ecuador. Four of these thirteen taxa are widely distributed in Central and South America. The remaining nine taxa are distributed from Venezuela to Brazil, with one species, M. quinatum, reaching Argentina. Three species and three varieties are here presented as new records for Ecuador. General morphology, taxonomic treatments with keys to species, descriptions, illustrations, and maps of all Ecuadorian species are provided.
Two new species of Tococa with large bracts and ant domatia are described. Tococa leticiana has caducous acuminate floral bracts that enclose the young inflorescence and is known only from Leticia, Colombia. Tococa costoides has persistent broadly ovate floral bracts and is known from Amazonas State in Brazil.
Eight new South American species of Palicourea are described and illustrated: P. crystallina from north-central Peru differs from P. loxensis from Ecuador, also described herein, by its longer calyx limbs, 1.2–2.5 mm long, with the lobes often unequal in length; P. cutucuana from southern Ecuador differs from P. angustifolia in its broader leaves and inflorescences and larger corollas; P. gelsemiiflora of northern Peru is distinguished by its pedicels 11–20 mm long, calyx limbs 7–11 mm long, relatively large yellow corollas with tubes 32–33 mm long, relatively large fruits 12–13 mm long, and pyrenes with an unusual spongy wall; P. gemmiflora of southern Ecuador and northern Peru differs from P. subtomentosa by its longer corollas with horn-like projections on the abaxial surfaces of the lobes; P. lemoniana of southwestern Venezuela differs from P. nitidella by its corolla tubes 17–18 mm long with the lobes pubescent abaxially and from P. grandiflora by its secondary leaf veins only 7–10 pairs and corollas externally with lanose trichomes to 0.5 mm long; P. loxensis of southern Ecuador differs from P. garciae by its densely reticulated secondary and tertiary leaf venation, membranaceous stipules, and sessile rather than pedicellate flowers; P. otongaensis of north-central Ecuador differs from P. holmgrenii by its longer corollas with well developed horn-like appendages borne on the abaxial surfaces of the lobes; and P. smithiana of central Peru differs from P. lobbii by its laminar stipules with obtuse to rounded lobes only 0.5–1 mm long, yellow corollas, and pyrenes that are ridged dorsally.
The morphology and anatomy of fruits of Coccocypselum condalia, C. geophiloides and Lipostoma capitatum are discussed and illustrated. Except for the presence of a thin layer of sclerenchymatic endocarp in Lipostoma, there are no significant differences in the anatomical structure of these fruits. Therefore, Lipostoma is placed under the synonymy of Coccocypselum and the new combination Coccocypselum capitatum is provided. The remaining species, Lipostoma sericeum, is of uncertain status.
Cryptantha gypsophila, a new species of sect. Oreocarya, is described from gypsum outcrops in widely scattered valleys of Mesa, Montrose, and San Miguel counties of western Colorado. It can be distinguished from the related and more widespread, C. paradoxa by having leaf blades with a glabrous upper surface and a lower surface with conspicuously pustulate-based bristles rather than uniformly sericeous-strigose to villous leaf blade surfaces.
A new species of Vernonanthura (Asteraceae), V. warmingiana, from the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo is described and illustrated. The new species resembles Vernonanthura laxa, but differs in having 15–20 florets per capitula, small leaves, the blades elliptic to lanceolate and rounded at the apex. In addition, a new synonym is reported for Vernonanthura laxa, which is also described, and for the first time illustrated.
A new palm species, Coccothrinax torrida, endemic to a karst hill of semidesert southeastern Cuba, is described and illustrated. The new species is small sized, related to C. pauciramosa, and is characterized by the following features: narrow semiorbicular flat leaves that are covered on the adaxial surface by white wax; a small irregular palman; long and erect inflorescences; and small, white, smooth fruits.
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