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The ground spider family Lamponidae Simon, previously construed to include only the type genus Lampona Thorell, is relimited to encompass 190 species of Australasian gnaphosoids, most of which have been either undescribed or misplaced in the families Corinnidae and Gnaphosidae. Three subfamilies are recognized: the Lamponinae Simon (including nine genera totalling 81 species), the Centrothelinae, new subfamily (type genus Centrothele L. Koch, including 11 genera, totalling 89 species), and the Pseudolamponinae, new subfamily (type genus Pseudolampona, new genus, including two genera, totalling 20 species). Putative synapomorphies for the family, as relimited, include two newly noted characters: a pair of oval, invaginated abdominal sclerites situated just behind the epigastric furrow, and a highly modified promarginal seta originating near the base of the cheliceral fang. As relimited, the lamponids are exclusively Australasian, and are hypothesized to represent the sister group of the worldwide families Gnaphosidae plus Prodidomidae.
The most commonly encountered lamponids are large, synanthropic, and occasionally medically important spiders that have generally been identified as Lampona cylindrata (L. Koch) but actually constitute a group of three closely related species: L. cylindrata, L. murina L. Koch, and L. papua, new species. Of these three species, only L. cylindrata has been found in Western and South Australia and in Tasmania, and that species is also common in Victoria and New South Wales, extends north into south-central Queensland, and has apparently been introduced into the South Island of New Zealand. In contrast, only L. murina has been found in eastern Queensland, and that species also occurs south to Victoria and has apparently been introduced into Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, the North Island of New Zealand, and the Kermadec Islands; L. papua is known only from New Guinea. Lampona pseudocylindrata Strand is newly synonymized with L. cylindrata; L. formicaria (Urquhart) is removed from the synonymy of L. cylindrata and placed as a junior synonym of L. murina. Three other specific names are newly synonymized within Lampona: L. subaquila Urquhart with L. ruida L. Koch, and L. obnubila Simon and L. paupercula Simon, both with L. brevipes L. Koch. The female of L. quiqueplagiata Simon and the males of L. flavipes L. Koch, L. macilenta L. Koch, L. pusilla L. Koch, L. ruida L. Koch, L. punctigera Simon, and L. foliifera Simon are described for the first time; 47 new species of Lampona are described.
The subgenus Lamponina Strand is elevated to generic level. Lampona scutata Strand and Lampona asperrima Hickman are transferred to Lamponina; the male of the former species and the female of the latter are described fo