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A review of 37 bopyrid isopods known to infest 43 species of caridean shrimps in China is presented, based on literature records and new material. Synonymies are provided for all species, with descriptions and detailed illustrations given for species represented by material examined herein. Bopyrids recorded as new species or new Chinese records belong to the subfamilies Argeiinae (2 or 3 species, depending on the identity of Argeia sp.: Argeia pugettensisDana, 1852, Argeia sp., Stegoalpheon kempiChopra, 1923), Pseudioninae (2 species: Paranikione sibogae, n. gen. n. sp., and Paranikione distorta, n. sp.), Bopyrinae (13 species: Bathygyge grandis Hansen, 1897, Bopyrella articulata, n. sp., Bopyrinella parameces, n. sp., Bopyrione multifeminae, n. sp., Bopyroides hippolytes (Kröyer, 1838), Bopyroides shiinoiRybakov and Andeev, 1991, Parabopyrella cuspidata, n. sp., Parabopyrella distincta (Nierstrasz and Brender à Brandis, 1923), Parabopyrella elongata (Shiino, 1949), Parabopyrella hodgarti (Chopra, 1923), Parabopyrella perplexa Markham, 1990, Parabopyrella symmetros, n. sp., and Septembopyrina tozeumaophila, n. gen., n. sp.), and Hemiarthrinae (2 species: Eophrixus caudatus, n. sp., and Sigyn branchialis, n. gen, n. sp.), collected from the South China Sea (7 species), East China Sea (3 species), Yellow Sea (4 species), and East and South China seas (2 species). Three new genera and 10 new species are described, with an additional four species newly recorded from Chinese waters. The genus Argeia is reviewed and a new genus is erected for Argeia lowisiChopra, 1923, and Argeia nierstraszi Shiino, 1958. Capitetragonia Pearse, 1953, is recognized as the senior synonym of Probopyria Markham, 1985. The genus Parabopyriscus and species Parabopyriscus stellatus are deemed to be available from Markham, 1982, not Markham 1985. Hemiarthrus filiformisChopra, 1923, is transferred to Hyperphrixus Nierstrasz and Brender à Brandis, 1931. The species composition of Eophrixus Caroli, 1930, is reviewed, the type species designation is clarified, and two species of Hypophryxus Shiino, 1934, are transferred into this genus. A key to all genera of Argeiinae and Bopyrinae and keys to species of seven bopyrine genera are provided, as is a list (with hosts) of the 82 bopyrid and ionid species currently known to infest Chinese noncaridean decapods.