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This study presents what is known about the extant ant (Formicidae) fauna of the island of Hispaniola. Specimen-based occurrence records, published accounts, and newly collected data are synthesized here to provide a synopsis of the fauna: the species present, their known distribution, and details about their natural history. This study represents the only contemporary study of the ant fauna of one of the larger Caribbean islands. Forty-three genera and 144 named species and subspecies are now known from Hispaniola. Additional undescribed species, known from existing museum specimens, would readily add between 15 to 20 new endemic species to this total. Approximately half (61) of the native species (126) are island endemics. The discovery of novel species, both undescribed species and named species that were previously not know to occur on the island, is likely as further studies explore areas of the island that have yet to be sampled for ants.