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In this paper, the authors present modern microscopical studies for 28 type specimens of Russula species described by C.H. Peck, thereby completing the revision of all 44 Russula taxa described by this author and for which type specimens were available. Our results suggest that with eventual exception of R. granulata var. lepiotoides (a likely synonym of the type variety) and R. magnifica (a likely synonym of R. polyphylla), all other Russulas described by Peck correspond to well-defined North American taxa. Having been described more than one century ago, Peck's names represent the majority of the earliest described North American Russula species and our type revisions are therefore important both for nomenclatural aspects, as well as typification and identification purposes. All studied taxa are illustrated in detail and accompanied by notes including a short recapitulation of previous type revisions, as well as our own re-evalutation of their systematic position as a result of this study.
The taxonomic status and phylogenetic placement of Sporidesmium pachyanthicola in Capnodiales (Dothideomycetes) are revisited based on a specimen collected on the petiole of a dead leaf of Sabal palmetto in south Florida, U.S.A. New evidence inferred from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence data together with a broad taxon sampling at family level suggest that the fungus is a member of Extremaceae and therefore its previous placement within the broadly defined Teratosphaeriaceae was not supported. A new genus Castanedospora is introduced to accommodate this species on the basis of its distinct morphology and phylogenetic position distant from Sporidesmiaceae sensu stricto in Sordariomycetes. The holotype material from Cuba was found to be exhausted and the Florida specimen, which agrees well with the original description, is selected as epitype. The fungus produced considerably long cylindrical to narrowly obclavate conidia in culture strongly resembling those of Sporidesmajora pennsylvaniensis, another sporidesmium-like, capnodiaceous anamorph. However, phylogenetic analyses show that they are not congeneric and the latter belongs to the family Phaeothecoidiellaceae.
Two novel species of Russula subgenus Heterophyllidia, collected from Guangdong Province, P. R. of China, are described and illustrated based on both morphology and phylogenetic analyses of ITS sequences. Russula verrucospora sp. nov. is characterized by a combination of unequal lamellae, verrucose basidiospores, presence of robust caulocystidia, and pleurocystidia changing to reddish-brown in sulphovanillin (SV). R. xanthovirens sp. nov. is phylogenetically closely related to R. aureoviridis within subsection Virescentinae, but it can be separated from the latter by its much thicker pileipellis which is distinctly divided into two layers and orthochromatic in cresyl blue, ellipsoid to globose subterminal cells, bigger basidiospores with higher warts and ridges, and much longer pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia. Both morphological and molecular data consistently verify that R. verrucospora and R. xanthovirens are new to subg. Heterophyllidia. The differences among these two novel species and their related taxa are discussed.