Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important worldwide pest of citrus that vectors bacteria (Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) responsible for huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). We examined the behavioral responses of mated and unmated D. citri of both sexes to odors from host plants in a Y-tube olfactometer, with and without visual cues. The host plants tested were ‘Duncan’ grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfayden), sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.), navel orange (C. sinensis L.), and Murraya paniculata L. Jack. Responses varied by plant species, psyllid sex and mating status, and the presence of a visual cue. Evidence of attraction generally was stronger in females and in mated individuals of both sexes relative to virgins. The presence of a visual cue typically enhanced attractiveness of olfactory cues; in no case did unmated individuals show evidence of attraction to host plant odors in the absence of a visual cue. In the absence of visual cues, mated females and males showed evidence of attraction only to odors from sour orange and navel orange, respectively. Psyllids exhibited anemotactic responses when assayed with plant odors alone but showed strong evidence of attraction only when olfactory and visual cues were combined, suggesting that olfactory cues facilitate orientation to host plants but may be insufficient alone. Antennal responses to citrus volatiles were confirmed by electroantennogram. The results reported here provide evidence that D. citri uses olfactory and visual cues in orientation to host plants and suggest the possibility of using plant volatiles in monitoring and management of this pest.
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