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Several new Sphagnum species occurrences are reported for each of Butler, Crawford, Mercer, and Venango Counties in northwestern Pennsylvania. Five new county records are reported from Butler County: S. centrale, S. cuspidatum, S. flexuosum, S. girgensohnii, and S. subtile. Sphagnum contortum and S. palustre are new to Crawford and Mercer Counties, respectively. Seven new county records are reported to Venango County, namely, S. cuspidatum, S. girgenshonii, S. magellanicum, S. majus, S. palustre, S. subsecundum, and S. warnstorfii. Additionally, we report the continued occurrences of S. girgensohnii from Allegheny County and S. capillifolium from Butler County that were previously known only from historical records of collections made 70 and 80 years ago, respectively.
Fifty-four taxa of calicioid lichens and fungi are reported for Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Short narratives provide information on substrate(s), distribution within the park, and up to four representative specimens for each species. As a group of species that prefer older, undisturbed forests and clean air, the calicioid lichens are finding neither. The structural integrity of the forests has been ravaged by insect and fungal attack and air pollution has been a problem for far too long. The poor health of these species raises concern for the health of the park's ecosystems.
This paper reviews early bryophyte records from Sable Island, Nova Scotia, and reports on collections made between 2008 and 2016 in which 73 bryophyte species were found, and includes comments on their ecology. Of the 73 species, 50 (40 mosses and 10 liverworts) are additions to the list for the island. An annotated checklist includes current and former records for a total of 84 bryophyte species (70 mosses and 14 liverworts). Eleven species found by earlier collectors were not recorded on the island in the 2008–2016 surveys.
The genus Cladonia is widely distributed around the world. Since the section Cladonia contains species complexes that are difficult to distinguish, the distributions of species within these complexes are even less well-known than others. The cup-forming species, Cladonia magyarica, is morphologically similar to C. pyxidata and C. pocillum; and C. humilis is morphologically similar to C. conista and C. chlorophaea. Both species, C. magyarica and C. humilis, have not been previously reported for Manitoba, but their distribution ranges fall very close to the province, and they grow in habitats that are present in southern Manitoba. The goal of this paper was to report the presence of C. magyarica and C. humilis in Manitoba representing range extensions for both species, and to show morphological differences among them and their close allies present in the same geographic locations. The morphological differences between C. magyarica and C. pyxidata include squamules inside the cup and a significantly taller podetium and wider cup diameter in C. magyarica than C. pyxidata. Cladonia magyarica also differs from C. pyxidata in possessing atranorin in addition to fumarprotocetraric acid, in every specimen we collected. Atranorin and fumarprotocetraric acid were also shown to be present in C. humilis, but C. humilis has soredia covering the podetium, which is not present in the aforementioned taxa.
A recent checklist of Pennsylvania mosses credits the Commonwealth with 443 moss taxa. In that list Fulton County has 31 mosses attributed to it. The most recent account of the liverworts and hornworts of Pennsylvania listed 147 liverwort and hornwort taxa from the Commonwealth, but only 12 liverworts from Fulton County. As a result of recent fieldwork, an additional 46 moss taxa and three liverwort species have been found in the county. Bryophytes of interest include Dicranodontium denudatum, Ephemerum crassinervium, Fissidens subbasilaris, Fontinalis sphagnifolia, Hygroambylstegium tenax var. spinifolium, Isopterygiopsis muelleriana, Pellia neesiana, Pohlia annotina, Pylaisiadelpha tenuirostris, Sematophyllum demissum, S. marylandicum, Sphagnum lescurii, and Syntrichia papillosa. In addition, six mosses from Fulton County previously known only from literature reports were collected, identifications verified, and collections vouchered. Voucher specimens for bryophytes reported here are deposited in MO. Included in this study are 2 moss and 2 liverworts listed for Fulton County on the CNABH website. Currently, 79 moss and 17 hepatic taxa have been reported from Fulton County.