Sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha and Thysanoptera: Thripidae) collected in Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi were identified. From 28 samples collected on 9 crop and ornamental host-plant species, 21 species of sap-sucking insects were identified, 12 (57%) of which were new island distribution records. This suggests that the Indonesian insect fauna has not been documented for a long time. The new distribution records are: from Java, Lepidosaphes gloverii (Packard) (Diaspididae); from Sumatra, Clavaspidiotus apicalis Takagi (Diaspididae); and from Sulawesi, Coccus hesperidum L. (Coccidae), Saissetia coffeae (Walker) (Coccidae), Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi (Diaspididae), Hemiberlesia palmae (Cockerell) (Diaspididae), Lepidosaphes tokionis (Kuwana) (Diaspididae), Microparlatoria fici (Takahashi) (Diaspididae), Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (Cooley) (Diaspididae), Icerya aegyptiaca (Douglas) (Monophlebidae), I. pulchra (Leonardi) (Monophlebidae) and Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard) (Thripidae). Clavaspidiotus apicalis could become a potentially invasive pest of citrus.
Sap-sucking insect pests (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha and Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in North Sulawesi, Indonesia were collected by R. Muniappan, facilitated by D. T. Sembel during a workshop on “Biodiversity and Integrated Pest Management: Working Together for a Sustainable Future” that the Integrated Pest Management Innovation Laboratory, Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, Virginia, organized in collaboration with Sam Ratulangi University and the International Association for Plant Protection Sciences in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, 4 to 7 Jul 2013. Samples were collected also from North Sumatra by B. M. Shepard, G. Carner and E. Benson, and from West Java by A. Rauf and B. M. Shepard, in early Sep 2013. The samples were sent to G. W. Watson for identification at the California Department of Agriculture Plant Pest Diagnostics Center in Sacramento, California, U.S.A. (CDFA-PPDC). This paper reports on new sap-sucking insect distribution records for the islands of Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi.
Materials and Methods
Samples of infested plant material were collected into Ziploc bags in the field for later sorting and preservation. Collection data was noted at the time of collection. Infested plant fragments were preserved in 70% ethanol in labeled Eppendorf tubes, and were stood in freshly boiled water for about 15 minutes to ensure optimal fixation of insect body contents. At CDFA-PPDC, archivalquality slide mounts of specimens were prepared using the method described by Watson & Chandler (2000) and refined by Sirisena et al. (2013).
Slide-mounted specimens were examined under a Zeiss compound light microscope with phase contrast illumination at x20-x800 magnifications, and identified using keys available in the literature (Reyne 1948; Takagi 1974; Martin 1987; Williams & Watson 1988a, 1988b, 1990; Watson 2002; Williams 2004; Unruh & Gullan 2008; Suh & Ji 2009; Hoddle et al. 2012) and with reference to specimens in the California State Collection of Arthropods, Plant Pest Diagnostic Center, Sacramento, California, U.S.A. Representative slide mounts of all the species are deposited in the collection at Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, and duplicate slides are in the California State Collection of Arthropods.
A total of 21 taxa were identified from 28 samples collected on 2 crop and 7 ornamental hostplant species:
From West Java, Bogor, on Citrus sp., coll. A. Rauf and B. M. Shepard: Hemiptera: Diaspididae: Lepidosaphes gloverii (Packard), 5-IX-2013. Pseudococcidae: Rastrococcus sp. immatures, 5.ix.2013.
From North Sumatra, Pakpak Bharat District, Siengat Robe, Traju, on Citrus sp., coll. B. M. Shepard, G. Carner and E. Benson, 2-IX-2013: Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae: Aleurocanthus citriperdus Quaintance & Baker, 3 samples. Coccidae: Saissetia coffeae (Walker), 2 samples. Diaspididae: Clavaspidiotus apicalis Takagi, 3 samples; Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman), 2 samples.
From North Sulawesi, Manado, coll. R. Muniappan: Hemiptera: Coccidae: Coccus hesperidum L., on Mangifera indica, 26-VI-2013; Saissetia coffeae (Walker), on Cycas sp., 29-VI- and 7-VII-2013; on ornamental Acanthaceae, 27-VI-2013. Diaspididae: Aspidiotus rigidus Reyne, on ornamental palm, 26-VI-2013; Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi, on Cycas sp., 7-VII-2013; Hemiberlesia palmae (Cockerell), on Cycas sp., 26-VI-2013; Lepidosaphes tokionis (Kuwana), on Codiaeum variegatum, 27-VI-2013; Microparlatoria fici (Takahashi), on Ficus sp., 26-VI-2013, Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (Cooley), on Cycas sp., 29-VI-2013. Monophlebidae: Icerya aegyptiaca (Douglas), on Mimosa pigra, 7-VII-2013; Icerya pulchra (Leonardi), on Mangifera indica, 30-VI-2013; Icerya samaraia (Morrison), on Mimosa pigra, 7-VII-2013. Pseudococcidae: Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), on Hibiscus sp., 27-VI-2013; Planococcus minor (Maskell), on Codiaeum variegatum, 28-VI-2013; Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, on Citrus sp., 30-VI-2013; Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti), on Codiaeum variegatum, 2 samples, 27-VI-2013. Thysanoptera: Terebrantia: Thripidae: Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard), on Codiaeum variegatum, coll. R. Muniappan, 30-VI-2013.
Of the 21 species of sap-sucking insects collected, 12 (57%) represented new island records within Indonesia.
New Record from Java
Lepidosaphes gloverii (Diaspididae) is a wellknown pest of Citrus species and is fairly widespread in southern Asia, but in Indonesia it has been recorded before only from the province of Papua (Reyne 1961; Williams & Watson 1988a). A single specimen was collected from Java in this study.
New Record from Sumatra
Clavaspidiotus apicalis (Diaspididae) was described from Java, where it is probably native. It has likely been spread by human activity, and has been intercepted at U.S. plant quarantine inspection from the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore and Egypt (Takagi 1974). It feeds on Citrus species but has also been found on Flacourtiaceae, Lauraceae and Rutaceae. In Sumatra it was found forming dense colonies on citrus fruit, was only sparsely present on the leaves; no sign of any predator or parasitoid activity was apparent. This species has the potential to become a pest of commercial citrus in the absence of its natural enemies.
New Records from Sulawesi
Coccus hesperidum (Coccidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous pest species. In Indonesia, the scale was recorded from Papua and Sumatra by Ali (1971) but Kalshoven (1981) made no mention of it being a crop pest in Indonesia.
Saissetia coffeae (Coccidae) is a tropicopolitan, polyphagous species that is often found on ferns. It was recorded previously from Java and Papua (Green 1904) and Sumatra (Ali 1971). In addition to our samples from North Sulawesi, there are specimens of S. coffeae (from North Sulawesi, Utara, Dumoga-Bone National Park, Torut base camp, on epiphytic orchid, coll. J. H. Martin, 26.iii1985) in the Natural History Museum collection in London, U.K. Kalshoven (1981) mentioned this species but regarded it as a minor pest of coffee, cinchona, tea, cotton, citrus and the palm Livistona sp. in Indonesia.
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (Diaspididae), a native of Thailand that has become a serious pest of Cycadaceae in many countries, was first recorded from Indonesia (Java) by Muniappan et al. (2012). Its discovery in Sulawesi indicates that this pest is spreading in Indonesia. Judging by the impact it has had on endemic cycad species in Guam and Taiwan, A. yasumatsui may present a threat of extinction to endemic cycads in Indonesia (Cave et al. 2013). The presence of this species in Singapore was discussed by Hodgson & Martin (2001).
Hemiberlesia palmae (Diaspididae) has a preference for palms; it is probably of Neotropical origin, but is now tropicopolitan. It has been present in Java and Sumatra for many years (Green 1930; Kuwana & Muramatsu 1931). The new record from Sulawesi is possible evidence of inter-island movement.
Lepidosaphes tokionis (Diaspididae) is an oligophagous species that has become relatively tropicopolitan; it was recorded from Java by Ali (1969). The material from Sulawesi indicates that the species is more widely distributed in Indonesia than has been documented.
Microparlatoria fici (Diaspididae) is specific to Ficus sp.; it was described from Thailand and has been intercepted at Korean plant quarantine inspection from Indonesia and Taiwan (Suh & Ji 2009). Unfortunately Suh & Ji (2009) gave no information on what part of Indonesia the shipment originated from. Our material indicates that M. fici is present in Sulawesi.
Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (Diaspididae) is a tropicopolitan, highly polyphagous pest of ornamental plants and fruit trees that has been present in Java for many years (Green 1905). The find in Sulawesi indicates that the species is more widespread in Indonesia than has been documented.
Icerya aegyptiaca (Monophlebidae) is a pest on many plants in Micronesia (Beardsley 1966); in Kiribati it particularly damages Artocarpus altilis (O'Connor 1969). In Indonesia, I. aegyptiaca was recorded from Kalimantan by Williams & Miller (2010).
Icerya pulchra (Monophlebidae) is oligophagous on tree, shrub and palm hosts but has not been recorded causing crop damage. It was described from Java, and Rao (1951) recorded it from Sumatra. In addition to our sample from North Sulawesi, there are specimens of I. pulchra from near Manado (Pulau Bunaken, on breadfruit, coll. C. Salaki 1988) in the Natural History Museum collection in London, U.K.
Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Thripidae) is possibly of African or South American origin but is now present in many tropical countries. It feeds on the mature leaves of numerous tree crops and can be damaging (Hoddle & Mound 2012). Selenothrips rubrocinctus was first recorded from Java by Sartiami & Mound (2013).
From 21 species in 28 samples collected from 2 crop and 7 ornamental host-plant species, 12 (57%) were new island distribution records. This suggests that the Indonesian insect fauna has not been documented in the last 30–40 years, during which time a number of economically important species have been accidentally introduced to the country or have spread between the islands. Most of the introductions are well-known, polyphagous pest species whose distributions and economic and ecological impacts in Indonesia have not been documented.
We wish to thank Ms. Susan McCarthy (Branch Chief, California Department of Food and Agriculture Plant Pest Diagnostic Center, Sacramento, California, U.S.A.) for permitting the study of samples from Indonesia at this facility. Dr. Andrew Polaszek (Head of Division (Insects), Life Sciences Department, The Natural History Museum, London, U.K.) generously permitted access to the insect collection there. Dr. Kikin Hamzah Mutaqin (plant pathologist, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia) kindly assisted with the collection of samples in West Java. Dr. Douglass R. Miller (ARS, USDA, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, U.S.A.) and three anonymous reviewers kindly provided helpful critique of the manuscript. Support for this study was provided by USAID Cooperative Agreement No: EPP-A-00-0400016-00. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication are solely for the purpose of providing specific information and do not imply recommendation or endorsement by the institutions that employ the authors.