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BARSANTI, M., CALDA, N and VALLONI, R., 2011. The Italian Coasts: a Natural Laboratory for the Quality Evaluation of Beach Replenishments. In: Micallef, A. (ed.), MCRR3-2010 Conference Proceedings, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, No. 61, pp. 1–07. Grosseto, Tuscany, Italy, ISSN 0749-0208.
The present paper describes the joint research recently carried out by the University of Parma and the ENEA Marine Research Centre of La Spezia for the characterization of grain-size and petrography of the Native sediments of the Italian marine coastal territory. The work aims to establish a protocol for the evaluation of the “quality’ of artificial beach replenishment fills. GIS technologies have been used to create a national database on coastal cells. The Italian territory is composed of 188 Littoral Cells if coastal stretches less than 5 km long are ignored. On these Cells over two hundred sample couples of dune and beach sediment were collected and analysed for grain-size and thin-section petrography.
The original petrographic classification adopted here is also suitable to the collection of literature data and is based on four fundamental sediment sources named Terrigenous silicate, Terrigenous carbonate, Indigenous and Pyroclastic, that may expand into eight petrographic compositions depending on the prevailing grain type: Quartzitic, Feldspathic, Metamorphilithic, Volcanilithic, Dololithic, Calcilithic, Bioclastic and Tuffitic.
The foreshore sands reach their maximum diameters in Sardinia and Sicily where the Median (D50) ranges 0.801.50 phi (medium and coarse sands, with D50 averaging 0.50 mm). The foreshore sands show their minimum diameters in the Adriatic coast where the Median ranges 2.0–3.0 phi. These grain-size trends are also reflected in the dune sands that reach their maximum values in Sardinia where D50 ranges 1.00–2.50 phi. Beach-dune sample couplets indicate that the sediment textural maturation is poorly effective in the Adriatic coasts and highly effective in the Tyrrhenian coasts.
IN HO, K and JUNG LYUL, L., 2011. Beach Monitoring and Beach Management of Gangwon coast. In: Micallef, A. (ed.), MCRR3-2010 Conference Proceedings, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, No. 61, pp. 8–13. Grosseto, Tuscany, Italy, ISSN 0749-0208.
A periodic and long-term beach monitoring and diagnostic system is developed for the design and assessment of coastal development plans at coastal zones of Gangwon Province. Nearly 300km shoreline appears along the east coast of Gangwon Province. A few beaches are under the control of military forces to keep citizens away. The coastal zone named Donghaean is composed of three major watershed zones. The beaches in this area are heavily influenced by the presence of coastal prevention projects including groins, detached breakwaters and seawall. Dataset of shorelines and beach profiles is consequently stored by the developed monitoring system and used to interpret the consequences of past events, while the beach diagnostic system is developed to predict the impact of future ones. This system covers a large coastal stretch divided into 20 watershed sectors for littoral analysis. One-dimensional inverse method and new sediment transport model (diffraction effects included) are used as a main tool to analyze and predict shoreline changes, respectively. In addition, two types of morphological models are also employed to investigate the more detailed seabed changes in the vicinity of fishery ports or river inlets.
CUMBERBATCH, J and MOSES, J., 2011. Social Carrying Capacity in Beach Management in Barbados. In: Micallef, A. (ed.), MCRR3–2010 Conference Proceedings, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, No. 61, pp. 14–23. Grosseto, Tuscany, Italy, ISSN 0749–0208.
This research investigated Social Carrying Capacity (SCC) in the context of beach management in Barbados. The research contributed to evidence-based decision making by providing data that can inform the enhancement of the beach management plan of the Government of Barbados. Data were gathered from locals and tourists visiting several beaches over a four year period, 2005 – 2009. Questionnaires were used to collect data on variables including: demographics, beach choice and use preferences, beach accessibility, beach amenities and activities, and perceptions of crowding. Findings indicated that there were distinct demographic use patterns with respect to time of use, activities and amenity preferences. It was found that while the existing beach management plan sought to create a balance between ecological and social objectives, it did not sufficiently reflect or take the diversity of the users into account. The study concluded that the diversity of needs and uses had the potential for user conflict, and therefore made recommendations for making the management plan more attentive to social carrying capacity issues.
COLOMBINI, I., FALLACI, M and CHELAZZI, L., 2011. Terrestrial Macroinvertibrates as Key Elements for Sustainable Beach Management. In: Micallef, A. (ed.), MCRR3-2010 Conference Proceedings, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, No. 61, pp. 24–35. Grosseto, Tuscany, Italy, ISSN 0749-0208.
Recreational activities on sandy beaches are basically human centred and there is little concern of their biological components. Terrestrial sandy shore are often regarded as void boxes of sand to be reconstructed where missing, decorated with coastal vegetation and mechanically cleaned for aesthetic and sanitary reasons. But what costs, in terms of biodiversity loss, are we dealing with? Can beach management be sustainable without considering the fact that terrestrial beach macroinvertebrates are hardly taken into account in management practices? Do beach managers know the importance of terrestrial macroinvertebrates for ecosystem functioning? What measures are needed to avoid the massive loss of species? To address these questions a ten year period of study was conducted on the beach of the Maremma Regional Park (Grosseto, Italy). Here direct impacts due to human activities (beach recreation, trampling, etc) were relatively low, but indirect ones (a severe problem of beach erosion at the Ombrone river mouth) were taking place and large sections of the beach had already been destroyed. Since one of the main attractions of the Maremma Regional Park was the beauty of its beaches (used for summer bathing activities), concerns of the public opinion and of park managers were extremely high. A first approach of our study was to evaluated the health of the beach environment through a baseline ecological study and to pin pointed the main factors causing the erosion process. The study showed that the system was in a dynamic equilibrium with an erosion process going on one side and a accretion process on the other. Biodiversity levels followed linear gradients with increasing levels at increasing distance from the river mouth and were related to increases in habitat complexity. Changes rapidly occurring around the river mouth had produced a shift of the macroinvertebrate community in a buffer area at a higher distance from the river mouth where populations were still consistent in species number and abundance. Furthermore, studying beach populations at increasing distances from the river mouth on a monthly basis demonstrated that terrestrial beach invertebrates (amphipods, isopods, tenebrionids), strictly inhabiting the sand, tended to shift horizontally along the beach to avoid human disturbance according to the season. This finding not only has an ecological importance for the resilience of the ecosystem, showing the value of buffer areas as resources for biodiversity, but also it presents practical aspects as it can be used by beach managers to plan actions for sustainable management. In other beaches where impacts are high this tool could be employed to fine tune spatial and temporal beach cleaning events to avoid further losses of beach species and/or the recovery of others. The study, however, suggests the need of an active interaction between scientists, stakeholders and managers. Communication is also needed between beach ecologists and coastal recreational managers to whom this conference is addressed as more often it has occurred that defence measures have been taken without considering the impacts on the biotic components of the beach ecosystem.
FIRMAN, K., KEMP, L, FINCH, D., MALLIA, A and SCIORTINO, J., 2011. Designing a Sustainable Beach Replenishment Scheme for a Site in Malta. In: Micallef, A. (ed.), MCRR3–2010 Conference Proceedings, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, No. 61, pp. 36–43. Grosseto, Tuscany, Italy, ISSN 0749–0208.
The Malta Tourism Authority is planning to undertake environmentally sound beach replenishment along a rocky stretch of coastline immediately south of Qawra Point, Salina Bay. Refinement and confirmation of an initial beach layout through numerical modelling was undertaken to support Environmental Impact Studies required for the development permit for the creation of a recreational beach. There is no offshore sand available for replenishment in Malta. Instead, sand must be crushed from rock originating from an overseas quarry; local limestone is too friable. This reduces the risk of biological contamination and enables the granulometric characteristics of the sediment to be designed to suit the wave conditions and meet the design specifications. The proposed design life for the artificial replenishment, before major replenishment becomes necessary (i.e. when the cumulative dry beach area loss reaches 30%), was set at 10 years. It was recognised that hard modifications to the existing coastline, i.e. control structures, may be required to stabilise the replenishment and prevent migration of the sand however, such modifications were to be kept to a minimum and not compromise the marine environment. Important features of the site included a tidal rock pool (overtopped under certain conditions) along the spit linking Qawra Point to the mainland and the location of nearshore Posidonia oceanica meadows (an Annex I priority habitat under the European Union Habitats Directive) restricting the extent of the beach. Wave modelling was undertaken to establish extreme and morphologically representative wave conditions. The results were used to assess the typical beach plan shape which was found to be quite stable and not subject to large variations. The stable beach profile was assessed to provide an indication of the overall footprint of the beach within the bay and cross-shore sediment transport modelling was used to determine beach draw-down during storm events. Modelling studies showed that it may be possible to create a beach at the site. However, there are several factors for consideration such as the offshore extent of the beach toe, thought to place some risk on the nearshore seagrass, and overtopping from the tidal pool. Mitigation methods suggested included the adoption of coarser, narrowly graded material as well as the use of beach retaining structures. A 3D mobile bed physical model was recommended to further refine the scheme.
TEODORO, A., PAIS-BARBOSA, J., GONÇALVES, H., VELOSO-GOMES, F and TAVEIRA-PINTO, F., 2011. Beach Hydromorphological Analysis Through Remote Sensing. In: Micallef, A. (ed.), MCRR3-2010 Conference Proceedings, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, No. 61, pp. 44-51. Grosseto, Tuscany, Italy, ISSN 0749-0208.
Beach hydromorphological classification is a complex subject. Different beach classification models were presented by several authors. However, fundamental parameters are usually unavailable. Therefore, a morphological analysis using remotely sensed data and image processing techniques is a good approach to identify and to classify beach hydromorphologies. Remote sensing data is an increasingly important component of natural resources monitoring programs. Its usefulness can be maximized by understanding the constraints and capabilities of the imagery and change detection techniques, related to the monitoring objectives. The aim of this study was to explore different remotely sensed data (aerial photographs and a satellite image) and different image processing algorithms in order to identify coastal forms/patterns and further classify beach hydromorphological stage. To achieve that, different image processing techniques were applied to remotely sensed data: pixel and object-based classification algorithms and a pattern recognition approach using artificial neural networks. A stretch of the northwest coast of Portugal was chosen as the study area. The data used in this study consisted in aerial photographs and an IKONOS-2 image. Based on the obtained results two main conclusions could be taken: the pixel-based classification (supervised classification algorithms) showed better results than the object-based classification algorithms; and the pattern recognition approach is the most effective and accurate methodology. Therefore, the association of remote sensing data and image processing techniques is very useful in identifying coastal forms/patterns regarding the classification of beach morphological stage.