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The echinoderm fauna of the Kiunga Marine National Reserve, Kenya, is documented, based on the results of a field trip, and additional information from the literature. In this first paper, the Holothuroidea and Echinoidea are discussed. A total of 91 specimens representing eight orders, 13 families, 19 genera and 37 species were collected. Five other species were not collected but were identified in the field. Six additional species are reported from literature only and are not discussed. Diagnostic characters of every species recorded are given, as well as an assessment of their abundance in the Kiunga Marine Reserve. Clypeaster rarispinus, Phyllacanthus imperialis, Microcyphus rousseaui (Echinoidea), Holothuria (Cystipus) rigida, Holothuria (Platyperona) difficilis, Labidodemas pertinax, Stichopus chloronotus and Stichopus cf. monotuberculatus (Holothuroidea) are new records for Kenya. Holothuria (Theelothuria) turriscelsa is a new record for the Indian Ocean. This study stresses the importance of the Kiunga Marine National Reserve as a sanctuary in the conservation of the marine invertebrate fauna.
A series of biodiversity and socio-economic surveys carried out in the Sango Bay area of southern Uganda revealed high biodiversity values for some taxa in some sites. Use of this biodiversity and reliance on it by local communities was widespread. Biodiversity scores were given to all species and these were coupled with remotely-sensed data on land cover types to produce a biodiversity map for the area. On the basis of this map, zoning for different land uses is being proposed for the Sango Bay area. The implementation of the zoning plan should be in the form of an integrated conservation and development project.
The forests of Northern Kenya, and particularly of Mt Nyiru, have not been studied in detail, although they are extensive and play an important role in the life of the pastoralist communities surrounding them. Here, we present a checklist of the plants of Mount Nyiru and a syntaxonomic survey of the forest. Four hundred and thirty three taxa belonging to 284 genera and 102 families of higher plants are recorded. Thirty-nine taxa are new for the floral region K1. A syntaxonomic survey of the area shows that most forests belonged to the Juniperetea procerae (Montane Xeromorphic Cedar Forests). The Juniperion procerae, with the Faureo salignae-Ilicetum mitis on the wet mountain tops, and the Myrsino africanae-Juniperetum procerae in drier areas, were most commonly encountered. Interestingly, the top of Mt. Nyiru was covered with rather large stands of the Hagenietea abyssinicae (Subalpine Elfin Forests) but lacking Hagenia abyssinica itself, and extensive Sinarundinarietea alpinae (Bamboo Forests).
Small mammals were surveyed in the lowland forest of the Gonja Forest Reserve of north-eastern Tanzania. In 565 trap-nights 10 rodents (three species) were captured. In 12.5 net hours 27 bats (11 species) were netted. Comparisons of similar surveys in nearby montane forests indicate a lower density and diversity of rodents and shrews in Gonja than in higher elevation habitats. Information is presented on external measurements, weight and reproductive condition of the specimens collected.
This paper presents the results of a field interview survey and a literature review of the status of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in Tanzania. The survey was conducted between September 1993 and May 1994. The presence of cheetahs was documented in 30 areas (seven national parks, Ngorongoro Conservation Area, six game reserves, 13 game controlled areas, and 3 open areas), where a minimum of 366 cheetahs was estimated based on the sightings collected. In each of the 30 areas, cheetah status was evaluated in terms of distribution, frequency of observation, relative abundance, perceived trends in total numbers, and, where possible, minimum density estimates.
The densities estimated, ranging from 1 cheetah per 40 km2 to 1/925 km2, were lower than the average density in Africa. Estimators of abundance, frequency of observations, and trends tended to indicate a better cheetah status in the northern acacia savannas than in the southern miombo savannas. Family groups and large groups of adults where common in the north, while sightings of lone adults predominated in the south.
Recommendations for the conservation of cheetahs in Tanzania include: starting a nationwide monitoring of populations using this study as a blueprint and its results as a baseline; maintaining spatial connections between currently established cheetah populations; and favouring semi-nomadic pastoralism over farming and intensive ranching on rangelands.
The germination ecology of 25 tree species of the montane forests of Mount Kenya (Kenya) was studied. Five different germination strategies could be observed under similar ecological conditions. Pioneer species often required mechanical scarification before germinating, but did not react to different light conditions. Many species germinated without scarification, but were strongly influenced by the duration of seed storage. An equally high number of species positively reacted to bright illumination. Primary forest species mainly germinated under low illumination or dark conditions and showed a very short seed viability. The storage temperature did not influence viability, whereas the maturity of the seeds collected had a considerable influence on the germination success.
Working on the flora and vegetation of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, three ferns in three families were found that are not yet recorded for the floral region T2. The altitudinal range, localities and habitat description are given for Adiantum reniforme, Azolla africana and Trichomanes radicans.