A durable termite bait containing 0.5% noviflumuron was evaluated for physical durability, retention of active ingredient, consumption by termites, and toxicity to termites over 5 yr in field studies at locations in Indiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Plots in Indiana and Mississippi included both natural rainfall and irrigated plots, while plots in South Carolina received only natural rainfall. Samples collected every 3 mo for the first 4 yr were evaluated for consumption with a 7 d no-choice bioassay using Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). Consumption and toxicity of 5 yr samples were evaluated in similar bioassays conducted for 42 d. Durable baits received from field sites had some cracking, and a small amount of external flaking, but no major deterioration based on visual observation. There were no significant differences in noviflumuron concentration over the 5-yr period and no trend toward reduced concentrations of noviflumuron over time. Consumption of aged durable baits over 4 yr was variable, but termites usually consumed more aged durable bait than fresh durable bait and the differences were frequently significant. There were some exceptions, but termites consumed significantly more fresh durable bait than aged durable bait in only 4% of observations. When 5 yr samples were evaluated, consumption was lowest for fresh durable bait and termites consumed significantly more aged durable bait from irrigated plots in Indiana and from both natural and irrigated plots in Mississippi than fresh durable bait. Survival of termites fed blank durable bait was significantly higher than that for termites fed any of the baits containing noviflumuron and there were no significant differences in survival among the noviflumuron durable baits. Our results suggest that the bait would be durable for at least 5 yr and possibly longer under most environmental conditions.
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Vol. 107 • No. 3