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1 April 2015 Threshold Concentration of Limonoids (Azamax) for Preventing Infestation by Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)
M. A. Silva, G. C. D. Bezerra-Silva, J. D. Vendramim, M. R. Forim, I. C. G. Sá
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Abstract

This study identified the threshold concentration of limonoids for the complete inhibition of oviposition of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in grapes ‘Itália.’ Choice and no-choice experiments with the insect were performed. The three no-choice bioassays were conducted following a completely randomized design with 18 treatments (three densities of insects [one, two, or three females] × five concentrations of limonoids and control) and 20 replicates. In a free choice bioassay, two fruits per cage (a treatment grape and a control) were provided for ovipositing. Three densities of insects (one, two, or three females) were used, with 15 replicates. Bioassays were conducted at 25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The inhibition of oviposition of C. capitata was concentration dependent, with infestation occurring at lower concentrations of azadirachtin ( 3-tigloylazadirachtol) and complete inhibition occurring at concentrations at or exceeding 100 ppm azadirachtin ( 28.5 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol), maintaining protective effects even at the most densely populated treatment (three females per fruit). When the pest had a free choice of host grapes (treatment vs. control), severe inhibition was observed at concentrations ≥50ppm azadirachtin ( 14.3 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol). We conclude that a threshold concentration of 100 ppm azadirachtin ( 28.5 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol) is capable of preventing grape infestation. This concentration is likely to provide a reliable level of protection, as the experimental population density of three females per fruit usually does not occur in the field and wild flies usually have more host options.

© The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com
M. A. Silva, G. C. D. Bezerra-Silva, J. D. Vendramim, M. R. Forim, and I. C. G. Sá "Threshold Concentration of Limonoids (Azamax) for Preventing Infestation by Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)," Journal of Economic Entomology 108(2), 629-639, (1 April 2015). https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tou056
Received: 2 June 2014; Accepted: 4 December 2014; Published: 1 April 2015
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KEYWORDS
azadirachtin
fruit fly
Mediterranean fruit fly
natural product
neem
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