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The effects of cadmium (Cd) on the development, fecundity, and reproduction of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were estimated by constructing a life table of S. avenae exposed to Cd. The concentrations of Cd in the soil were as follows: 0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg. The correlation analysis of the Cd concentration in soil and wheat revealed that the amount in the wheat increased with the increase of Cd concentrations in soil. The results indicated that, the latter part of the reproduction period was significantly affected by Cd, according to the curve of the total survival rate (lx). The net reproductive rate (R0), innate capacity of increase (r), and finite rate of increase (λ) of S. avenae all decreased under the stress of Cd, and were lowest at a Cd concentration of 20 mg/kg. Cd also negatively affected fecundity and mx (the number of offspring produced by an individual female). At 20 mg/kg, the decline of them was most obvious. In conclusion, survival and reproduction of S. avenae were inhibited under the treatment of the heavy metal Cd. Sitobion avenae was more sensitive to Cd at concentration of 20 mg/kg compared to the other concentrations. This concentration can be used to examine the mechanisms behind population genetics and biological mutation of S. avenae when exposed to heavy metal.