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In order to study P element dynamics in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, 88 isofemale lines were examined from the Firtina Valley, Turkey. The P-M gonadal dysgenesis characteristics and the molecular patterns of P and KP elements were analyzed. Gonadal dysgenesis tests showed a slight variation both for P activity and P susceptibility, however the results showed a predominant M' phenotype for this region. The P and KP element were also characterized by polymerase chain reaction. The molecular analyses showed that all the populations examined had the entire 1.15 kb KP element. The molecular patterns of KP elements were the same for the populations studied. No clear relationship was found between phenotype and genomic P element composition. The correlations between the level of gonadal dysgenesis percentage (as an index for P activity and P susceptibility) and several geoclimatic factors were tested, and no general effects of altitude, temperature, rainfall, or humidity were found. The theoretical P' strain, which is very rare in natural populations, was also recorded for this region.