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1 September 2011 Insecticide Resistance in Bedbugs in Thailand and Laboratory Evaluation of Insecticides for the Control of Cimex hemipterus and Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)
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Bedbugs are found in many countries around the world, and in some regions they are resistant to numerous insecticides. This study surveyed bedbugs in Thailand and determined their resistance to insecticides. The surveys were carried out in six provinces that attract large numbers of foreign tourists: Bangkok, Chonburi, Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Phuket, and Krabi. Bedbugs were collected from hotels and colonized in the laboratory to evaluate their resistance to insecticides. Cimex hemipterus (F.) was found in some hotels in Bangkok, Chonburi, Phuket, and Krabi, whereas Cimex lectularius L. was found only in hotels in Chiang Mai. No bedbugs were found in Ubon Ratchathani. The colonized bedbugs showed resistance to groups of insecticides, including organochlorines (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane, dieldrin), carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur), organophosphates (malathion, fenitrothion), and pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, λ-cyhalothrin, etofenprox) in tests using World Health Organization insecticide-impregnated papers. The new insecticides imidacloprid (neonicotinoid group), chlorfenapyr (pyrrole group), and fipronil (phenylpyrazole group) were effective against the bedbugs; however, organophosphate (diazinon), carbamates (fenobucarb, propoxur), and pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, etofenprox) were ineffective. Aerosols containing various pyrethroid insecticides with two to four different active ingredients were effective against the bedbugs. The results obtained from this study suggested that both species of bedbugs in Thailand have developed marked resistance to various groups of insecticides, especially those in the pyrethroid group, which are the most common insecticides used for pest control. Therefore, an integrated pest management should be implemented for managing bedbugs in Thailand.

© 2011 Entomological Society of America
Apiwat Tawatsin, Usavadee Thavara, Jakkrawarn Chompoosri, Yutthana Phusup, Nisarat Jonjang, Chayada Khumsawads, Payu Bhakdeenuan, Pathom Sawanpanyalert, Preecha Asavadachanukorn, Mir S. Mulla, Padet Siriyasatien, and Mustapha Debboun "Insecticide Resistance in Bedbugs in Thailand and Laboratory Evaluation of Insecticides for the Control of Cimex hemipterus and Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)," Journal of Medical Entomology 48(5), 1023-1030, (1 September 2011).
Received: 7 January 2011; Accepted: 1 June 2011; Published: 1 September 2011

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