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A male Disceratus specimen found in cloud forest of Podocarpus National Park in southernmost Ecuador is apparently conspecific with Disceratus nubigerScudder 1869, known only from the female holotype, collected one and a half centuries ago on slopes of the volcano Antisana. The song of this male could be recorded, confirming the identification of field recordings as well as additional acoustic records with an ultrasound detector at the same site. This incessant calling song, a series of steadily repeated short clicks with a sharp peak at 20 kHz, easily reveals the presence of this short-legged and brachypterous katydid — it lives in bamboo thickets within cloud forest, where individuals are very difficult to find. More fieldwork and nocturnal acoustic monitoring in the tropical Andes will be essential to shed light on the distribution and life history of this practically forgotten genus and its species, some of them probably still undiscovered. Disceratus is recognized as full genus rather than a subgenus of Gnathoclita.
Phyllopalpus pulchellus Uhler (Trigonidiinae) is a small, diurnally-active cricket common throughout much of the eastern United States. Mating interactions in this species are here described based on observations of 14 mating pairs. Males produce two very different types of spermatophores: small, spermless microspermatophores which are removed and consumed by females shortly after transfer, and larger, sperm-containing macrospermatophores that are only produced following the successful transfer of a microspermatophore. A bell-shaped structure surrounding the sperm tube of macrospermatophores makes them more difficult for females to remove prematurely. Males' production and transfer of spermless microspermatophores likely serve as a test of female receptivity prior to investing in a relatively expensive macrospermatophore that must be used within a short period.
The moss-and-lichen mimic katydids of the group treated here are easily recognized by their long and slender wings held upward at an almost 45-degree angle. They live in rainforests of central and northern South America, with one species ranging southward to subtropical forest in NE Argentina. Here the recently introduced subgenus Anaphidna is raised to genus beside Paraphidnia, and three additional species are described: P. brevicristata n. sp. and P. tunki n. sp. from Ecuador, the latter along with the relatively complex male calling song, as well as A. obrieni n. sp. from Guatemala. P. gallina is redescribed. A key for the three species of Paraphidnia s. str. is included.
A new species of the genus Rhacocleis, R. andikithirensis sp. nov., is described from Greece. It was first discovered on the islet of Andikithira but its distribution area also includes the western Cyclades. Its relation with other members of the genus based on morphological and bioacoustical traits is discussed.
Acoustic communication in insects is vital for reproduction. In the family Tettigoniidae, certain features of acoustic signals are impacted by ambient temperature. The current study investigates the correlation between increased ambient temperature and signaling behavior in four species of katydids in two subfamilies under conditions that may be encountered as environmental temperatures continue to rise due to climate change. This is the first systematic investigation into the potential effects of temperature on song parameters in these four species. Individuals were tested at five different temperatures, ranging from 20 °C to 40 °C at 5°C intervals, and measurements were taken on six acoustic parameters: buzz duration, interbuzz interval (IBI) duration, number of ticks in the IBI, tick rate in the IBI, pulse rate within a buzz, and percent time spent calling. Results indicated a statistically significant effect of temperature on pulse rate, buzz duration, and interbuzz interval duration for all species tested. The percent time calling and buzz duration increased at higher temperatures in the single species in the subfamily Tettigoniinae, in contrast with the three species in the subfamily Conocephalinae which showed decreased percent time calling and reduced buzz duration in increased temperature. These results highlight the potential differences in the behavioral responses among different species to increasing global temperatures. Further research is necessary to assess the potential impact of variable calling parameters on female choice in these and other katydid species.