Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches.
Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content.
Contact email@example.com with any questions.
Serum and fecal samples from 12 species of aquatic birds were studied for evidence of exposure to a hemagglutinating duck adenovirus (DAV). DAV is serologically indistinguishable from egg-drop syndrome-76 virus. A total of 285 serum samples were tested by the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. Forty-two percent of the birds had HI antibodies, with titers ranging from 8 to 256. Wild ducks showed the highest frequency of antibodies (56%) while in coots and grebes, antibody was less frequent, 33% and 26%, respectively. Attempted virus isolations from 79 fecal samples were unsuccessful. The data support the hypothesis that DAV is indigenous in wild duck populations and suggest that infection and viremia are limited in time and occur at a very early age.
Fifty-five of 66 (83%) coyote pups from bitches vaccinated against canine parvovirus (CPV) were seropositive for CPV antibodies at birth. The CPV antibody titer in the pups declined with a half-life of 6.7 days until by the 8th week, only two of 41 (5%) pups were seropositive for CPV antibodies. At 8 wk, 41 of the pups were vaccinated against CPV (killed feline origin vaccine), but only one of 37 (3%) was positive for CPV antibodies at 11 wk. The 8-wk-old pups were either too young to respond to the CPV vaccine; they had sufficient undetectable, maternally-derived CPV antibodies to block active immunization; 3 wk was not a sufficient time for an immunological response from the pups; or the vaccine was poorly antigenic. Twenty of the 66 pups (30%) were seropositive for canine coronavirus (CCV) antibodies at birth, and all but three of the 20 were whelped from bitches that were also seropositive for CCV antibodies. Vaccination of females prior to whelping appeared to provide protection to their pups from CPV-induced mortality.
Anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. It is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. Anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana americana), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu), blesbuck (Damaliscus albifrons), and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmi grimmi). Unidentified anaplasms have been seen in, and in some instances isolated from, Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), Cokes hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella thompsonii), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), with serological evidence of Anaplasma infection in an even wider range of wild ruminant species. Anaplasma ovis, A. centrale, or other as yet unidentified anaplasms may well occur in other ruminants. With the exception of black-tailed deer, the epidemiologic significance of anaplasmosis in wildlife has yet to be determined. The only wild animal in which Anaplasma is reported to produce serious clinical disease is the giraffe.
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were examined for the tick, Ixodes dammini, and sera were analyzed for antibodies to spirochetes during 1982. Of the 323 animals inspected in four areas endemic for Lyme disease, 188 (58%) had adult ticks; parasitism ranged from 43% at Haddam to 82% at East Lyme. Direct and indirect fluorescent antibody tests detected spirochetes in 18 of 133 (14%) ticks. Indirect immunofluorescence tests revealed antibodies at titers of 1:64–1:4,096 to this bacterium in 93 (28%) of the 332 sera assayed. There is a close correlation among the distribution of spirochete-infected I. dammini, deer with antibodies, and human cases of Lyme disease.
Ten gray foxes, eight principals that were fed approximately 4.4 × 1010 colony forming units of Brucella abortus strain 2308 and two controls, were examined for serologic responses and tissue distribution of the organisms. Blood sera from each fox were tested on the day of exposure and at seven weekly intervals for antibodies to B. abortus, using the brucellosis card, standard tube agglutination, 2-mercaptoethanol and rivanol tests. Control foxes were serologically negative for all tests throughout the study and the principals were negative prior to exposure. On days 14, 21 and 28, the eight principals had positive card reactions and ≥1:100 tube agglutination titers. After 28 days, the titers receded; and by day 49, three principals had negative card reactions and one of these was negative for all tests. Brucella abortus was isolated from one or more lymph nodes from seven of eight principals including the one which was seronegative. The bacterium was not isolated from lungs, livers, spleens, kidneys, uteri or testicles.
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were experimentally inoculated with 60,000 or 100,000 oocysts of Eimeria mccordocki. Seven infected deer did not exhibit signs of coccidiosis although large numbers of oocysts were observed in feces after inoculation. The mean prepatent period of the parasite was 10.7 days in three deer inoculated with 60,000 oocysts and 10.0 days in four deer inoculated with 100,000 oocysts. Patent periods in these groups were 7.3 and 9.8 days, respectively.
This study concerned the suitability of rainbow trout as an experimental host for plerocercoids of Triaenophorus crassus. Twenty-five trout were exposed to Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi infected with procercoids of T. crassus. Plerocercoids were recovered from 11 of these fish. Hemorrhaging in the muscle was the first evidence of infection in live fish between Days 22-58 postinfection (PI). Migration of worms created extensive lesions in the muscle by Day 30 PI followed by formation of granulomas between Days 45–75 PI. One to three plerocercoids were wound throughout the muscle after Day 30 PI, and penetration into the body cavity and through the integument was common. Mortality of infected trout was first observed at Day 44 PI, and by Day 56 PI, 45% of the trout died. The swimming behavior of infected trout was marked by decreased activity and loss of equilibrium.
American kestrels were fed a diet containing 0.5, 120, 212, and 448 ppm (dry wt) biologically incorporated lead (Pb) for 60 days. The diet consisted of homogenized 4-wk-old cockerels raised on feed mixed with and without lead. No kestrels died and weights did not differ among treatment groups. The control group (0.5 ppm Pb) had the lowest mean concentration of lead and the high dietary group had the highest for the following tissues: Kidney, liver, femur, brain, and blood. Concentrations of lead were significantly correlated among tissues. There were no differences among treatment groups for packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, or erythrocyte count.
Seventeen serum chemistry analyses were performed on blood collected from captive diamond-backed water snakes. Means, standard deviations, and ranges were calculated for each assay. There was no correlation between the chemistry values and sex or size. The reported values for sodium, potassium, glucose, and total protein fell within the ranges found in the present study, but the values for chloride and blood urea nitrogen were higher, and calcium, bicarbonate, and osmolality were lower. Some snakes had unexpectedly very low serum glucose values which could not be explained by technique or methodology. There was a wide range in enzyme measurements which could be partly due to handling prior to death.
Four methods are described for obtaining blood samples from the collared peccary. This animal lacks prominent superficial veins which makes the procedure of taking blood difficult for inexperienced persons. Large volumes of blood (>20 ml) can be obtained easily via anterior vena cava venipuncture. Moderate amounts of blood (<20 ml) can be obtained from the orbital sinus. Lesser volumes of blood can be obtained from superficial veins located on the ear and the hind limb. The saphenous vein is distended easily due to its unique location across the cranial face of the tibia.