The epidemiological and historical aspects of some important and representative wildlife diseases from Scandinavia are discussed. In noninfectious diseases, examples include cataract in moose (Alces alces), atherosclerosis in hybrid hares (Lepus timidus × L. europaeus), and ethmoid tumors in moose. The epizootiological and historical aspects of the recent epizootics of myxomatosis in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and rabies and sarcoptic mange in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are reviewed. The decline and subsequent increase in population abundances of tetraonids including the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix), and hazel hen (Tetrastes bonasia) are discussed, and an hypothesis on predation by foxes is presented as a possible explanation for these population fluctuations. The potential impact of environmental pollution on wildlife populations is emphasized with reference to mercury in wildlife from Sweden and the possible effects of cadmium and selenium resulting from acidification. A bibliography of important references is presented pertaining to these and other diseases of wildlife from Scandinavia.
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