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1 July 1994 SUBCLINICAL AVIAN MALARIA INFECTIONS IN AFRICAN BLACK-FOOTED PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS DEMERSUS) AND INDUCTION OF PARASITE RECRUDESCENCE
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Abstract

The subclinical and clinical Plasmodium elongatum and Plasmodium relictum infections of captive-reared African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus) were evaluated in nine adult and 29 juvenile penguins in the Baltimore Zoo (Maryland, USA) during summer 1988 and winter 1989. Two diagnostic methods were used: Giemsa-stained thin blood films, and subinoculation of penguin blood into 1-day-old Peking ducklings. Chloroquine and primaquine treatment was applied to all parasitemic juvenile penguins. Twenty-nine parasite-free, juvenile penguins were monitored for parasitemia by Giemsa-stained thin blood films every two weeks for 26 weeks of their first outdoor exposure. Eighteen of 29 penguins experienced naturally acquired malaria; 14 were infected with P. elongatum, three with P. relictum, and one bird had a mixed P. relictum and P. elongatum infection. Eleven of 18 juveniles became parasitemic again after chloroquine and primaquine treatments. Based on Giemsa-stained thin blood smears and sub-inoculation of penguin blood into 1-day-old ducklings, performed in a mosquito-free environment in winter, nine adult penguins had no evidence of Plasmodium spp. infection. After dexmethasone-induced immunosuppression, four of six of these nonparasitemic adult penguins were found to be infected with P. relictum by the blood inoculation method.

Cranfield, Graczyk, Beall, laleggio, Shaw, and Skjoldager: SUBCLINICAL AVIAN MALARIA INFECTIONS IN AFRICAN BLACK-FOOTED PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS DEMERSUS) AND INDUCTION OF PARASITE RECRUDESCENCE
Michael R. Cranfield, Thaddeus K. Graczyk, Frederick B. Beall, Donna M. laleggio, Melvin L. Shaw and Mary L. Skjoldager "SUBCLINICAL AVIAN MALARIA INFECTIONS IN AFRICAN BLACK-FOOTED PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS DEMERSUS) AND INDUCTION OF PARASITE RECRUDESCENCE," Journal of Wildlife Diseases 30(3), (1 July 1994). https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-30.3.372
Received: 10 September 1993; Accepted: ; Published: 1 July 1994
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